A Guide to the
Elias Riggs Monfort

Letter Collection

Below is an alphabetical listing of information about people, events, terms, etc. found in the Elias Riggs Monfort Papers. 
Page images and transcriptions of letters in the collection are available.

Students from GW143/144 "Autobiography: History" (Fall 2013, Winter 2014, and Fall 2014), all taught by  Sarah McNair Vosmeier, contributed to this document.  



Baird, Absalom
Absalom Baird was a Union general in the Civil War. He lived from 1824 to 1905. When this letter was written, Baird was 39 years old. On April 28th, 1862, he was named brigadier general USV. Baird commanded the 27th Brigade of the Cumberland Division in Ohio. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1896 for his work in Jonesboro.

Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 38-39.

-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC 2018       

Emancipation Proclamation
President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in the states that were then still in rebellion.  Many northerners objected.  For instance, Lincoln's party did poorly in the 1862 elections, once voters learned of his plans, and the stock market also declined on news of the proclamation.

Source: Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (New York: Da Capo Press, 1982), 103-5.
-- smv       

Fort Wagner
This South Carolina fort is famous as the location of the heroic charge by the African-American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (on July 18, 1863).  In making the assault under heavy fire, the soldiers of the 54th proved that African Americans could serve "as gallantly as any troops could," as one reporter put it. Almost half of the men making the charge were killed, including their white commanding officer, Robert Gould Shaw.  The famous Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, commemorates the event, as does the movie Glory (1989).

Sources: "Exhibit 54th Mass Casualty List," American Originals, National Archives and Records Administration, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/54thmass.html (accessed 20 Nov. 2014); "Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment," Boston African-American National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/boaf/historyculture/shaw.htm (accessed 20 Nov. 2014).

-- smv          

Glendale Female College
Margaret Monfort attended Glendale Female College, where her father was principal. This college was in Glendale, Ohio.  It has been called the American Female College. Then the name was changed to Glendale Female College after her father, Rev. Joseph G. Monfort, and others took over the management. This college was more on the lines of a finishing school, as a private boarding school and a public school during day. This was one of the four institutions for women and had four divisions of studies. At the college, the girls were highly supervised by adults. Religion was important; everyone walked to church together on Sundays. This college began having difficulty with better private schools and coeducational colleges. In the 1920s, it closed because of the competition and the financial burden. The new building that was built in the building`s place gave housing to the residents of the town.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Hanover Jefferson County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; Mary Lynn Bryan and Barbara Bair, The Selected Papers of Jane Addams: vol. 1: Preparing to Lead, 1860-81. (University of Illinois Press 2003), 190-191.

-- Ashley Templeman, HC 2017             

Granger, Robert Seaman
Robert Granger was a Union general in the Civil War. He lived from 1816 to 1894. During the time this letter was written, he was 47 years old. On September 9th, 1861, he was promoted to major in the 5th Infantry. He commanded the post of Louisville and later took over Kentucky troops in late September of 1861. From January 29 to March of 1863, Granger lead the 1st Division XIV in Army of the Cumberland.

Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), p. 352.

-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC 2018             

Harris, Andrew L.
Elias Riggs Monfort and Andrew L. Harris were both officers in the 75th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (OVI).

Source:  Joseph B. Foraker, James S. Robinson, and H. A. Axline, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1866, Volume 6 (1886), 235.

-- Drew Shafer, HC 2018           

Howard, Oliver Otis
Oliver Otis Howard was born on November 8, 1830, in Leeds, Maine. His father's name was Rowland Baily Howard, and his mother's name was Eliza Otis Howard. He was a Union general in the Civil War. In 1854, Howard graduated from West Point, and he ranked 4th out of 46 students. He married Elizabeth Ann Waite on February 14th, 1855, and they would have seven children together. In the late 1850s, Howard was serving in Florida, and he converted to evangelical Christianity. He became so interested in that religion that he gave serious thought to becoming a priest. He was an instructor of mathematics at West Point in September 1857. He fought in many battles and gained many promotions. In the Battle of Fair Oaks, Howard was wounded, and the injury required him to have his right arm amputated above the elbow. He also fought in the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which is the battle that Sam Ruckman was accused of running away from.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), II: 1008-1010.

-- Zach Barnes, HC 2018       

Hurt, Joseph "Trygood"
Joseph "Trygood" Hurt was born in Ohio and lived in Ohio most of his life, not including his time served Company F of the Ohio Infantry's 75th Regiment. Hurt served his entire Civil War tenure as a private. Also known as Trygood and Hirt, he was approximately twenty-eight years old in 1862.  According to the 1860 census, Hurt was married to Maria Hurt and had one child, Martha A. Hurt, while sharing a home with William. C. Whitacre and Tevitha Whitacre, both young children at the time. Hurt and his family lived in Salem, Warren County, Ohio.

Sources: "U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865," s.v. Trygood Hurt, ancestry.com, http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November 2013);  1860 United States Census, s.v. Joseph Hurt," http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November 2013).

-- Cody Reister, HC 2017       




Marthell, Emil
Capt. Emil Marthell was Commissary of Subsistence on Folly Island, South Carolina, in 1863. (The "C.S.V." in his signature line stands for "Commissary of Subsistence of Volunteers." He was court martialed in January 1864 for neglect of duty and fraud. According to the charges, he embezzled over $2000 from the transactions he controlled as Commissary, and he  "did willfully conceal or destroy, or cause to be destroyed, all memorandum books of the sales of Commissary Stores" for September through December, 1863.   He was acquitted in January, but the Major General who reviewed his case the following month "disapproved" the acquittal, nevertheless releasing him on a technicality.

Sources: General Court Martial Orders from the Headquarters, Department of the South, 1862-1868, available through the Library of Congress.  War Department, General Orders No. 15 (Washington, D.C.: [Government Printing Office], 1861), available through the Internet Archive.
-- smv 

Miller, Abram O.
Abram Miller was a Union officer in the Civil War. He was born in Ohio. On April 5th, 1862, he became the Lt. Colonel in the 10th Indiana Regiment. On August 24th, 1862, he became the Colonel of the 72nd Indiana Regiment.

Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 550-551.

-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC 2018       

Monfort, Elias Riggs

Elias Riggs Monfort was born in Greensburg, Indiana, on March 2, 1842. His father, J. G. Monfort, was forty-six years old in 1860. His mother, Hannah (Riggs) Monfort, was forty-four years old in 1860. Elias Riggs Monfort had two younger siblings, Francis, sixteen years old, and Margaret, fourteen years old; they were both in school in 1860. Elias Riggs Monfort also had an uncle whose name was Elias, and he served for sixty years as a Christian missionary in Turkey. The Monfort family moved to Cincinnati in 1855 because J. G. Monfort became president of the Glendale Female College.  E. R. Monfort took in early education in Cincinnati and Glendale, and he entered Hanover College in 1859. In the year the Civil War began, in June 18, 1861, he joined Company A, 6th Ohio volunteer infantry. Later, in January 12, 1863, he was promoted to Captain of the 75th Ohio infantry. He got injured in some battles, including the battle of Gettysburg in 1863. He became disabled and unable to fight, so he went back to his home and Hanover College in 1864 and graduated there the next year. He graduated from a Cincinnati law school in 1867 and started working at the Ohio Court. He married Emma Taylor and had three children.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," Springfield, Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; Memoirs of the Lower Ohio Valley: Personal and Genealogical vol.1 (Federal Publishing Company, 1905), 24-26, (accessed through http://books.google.com,  4 Nov. 2014).

-- Asumi Oba, HC 2018       

Elias Riggs Monfort was born March 2, 1842, in Greensburg, Indiana. His father's name was Joseph Glass Monfort and his mother was Hannah Monfort. He also mentions having an uncle named Frank in his letter. On October 8th, 1861, he enlisted into the Union Army at the age of 20. He was ranked 2nd Lieutenant at time of enlistment. Later, he was commissioned an officer in Company F, Ohio 75th Infantry Regiment on December 14th, 1861. He was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on May 15th, 1862. Elias was then promoted to  Captain on January 14th, 1863. He was then decommissioned on December 9th, 1863 after he was injured from a gunshot to the hip. He was married to Emma T. Monfort and had three children; Joseph, Hannah, and Margaret. They lived in Hamilton County (Cincinnati) Ohio. Elias was an editor of newspaper, and Emma was a stay-at-home mother. Their neighbors were the Swansons and the Reeders.  Elias Riggs Monfort died July 29th, 1920, in Oaks Corner, New York. He was buried back in Hamilton County, Ohio, in the Spring Grove Cemetery.

Sources: 1880 United States Federal Census, s.v "Elias Riggs Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; "Capt. Elias Riggs Monfort" www.findagrave.com.

-- Kevin Christie, HC 2018       


Elias R. Monfort's home was in Springfield, Hamilton county, Ohio, around the time he was 18 years old. (Monfort was born about 1842 in Indiana.) There were twelve people living in his household around the time that the Civil War began. His mother and father were Hannah Monfort and J.G. Monfort; his father was the president of Glendale Female College. Elias had a sister named Margaret Monfort. There were six servants living in the house, and they were probably servants of the college; also there was another woman, possibly another family member, named Isabelle Ferry. Elias went to war when he was about 19 or 20. 

Source: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Elias Monfort," Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com ​. 

-- Brittany Slaughter, HC 2018       


Elias R. Monfort was born in 1842 in Greensburg, Indiana, but during and after the Civil War he lived in Cincinnati, Ohio, in Hamilton County. His father was born in Ohio, and his mother was born in New Jersey. He enlisted in the Army on October 8, 1861, when he was 20, as a second lieutenant. He was wounded while in the war but survived. He married Emma T. Monfort. He died in Oaks Corner, New York, about 1920. 

Sources: 1880 United States Census, s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; "U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865," s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Eddy Wagner, HC 2017       

Elias Monfort's father was a principal at the Glendale Female College and had a total worth of 10,000 in 1860. The household included six servants, as well as a female two years older than he, named Isabelle Ferry. Five of the servants were born in Ireland, and the other one came from Prussia. The servant from Prussia was the only male; the remaining servants were between the ages of 26 and 32 in 1860.  By 1880, Monfort's household included his wife, Emma T. Monfort, and three children (Joseph, Hannah, and Margaret), along with two servants. Monfort worked as an editor in 1880 and was a postmaster for the post office in 1910.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through ancestry.com;  1880 United States Census, Cincinnati, Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census, Cincinnati Ward 3, Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through ancestry.com.

-- Drew Stutz, HC 2017       

E.R. was twenty years old when he entered the war on October 8, 1861. He served Ohio during the war, and his rank when he enlisted was second lieutenant. He was wounded but survived. He was commissioned as an officer in Company F in the 75th Infantry Regiment in Ohio on December 14, 1861. He was promoted to Captain on January 14, 1863.

Source:  "1861-1865 U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles," Ancestry.com (library edition), s.v. "Elias Riggs Monfort," accessed 22 November 2013.

Diane Jackson, HC 2017       

Monfort, Francis C.
In Elias Riggs Montfort's letter to his sister on the 8th of October 1863, he mentions that he received a letter from Frank, who says he is studying hard since he left Hanover. Although little information is given about Frank, it still allows for a starting point in the investigation of his life. Knowing that he attended Hanover sometime before 1863, I found from the Hanover archives that his full name is actually Francis C. Montfort. He began his freshman year here in June 1860, joining his brother, Elias, who was already in his sophomore year; so there was about a year between them. Frank continued his studies at Hanover until 1862, his junior year. However, surprisingly, his brother's name did not appear in this year, which was supposed to be his senior year.  It seemed unusual that he would suddenly drop out when he had one year left to complete school. After searching through Hanover's history, I found that in the year 1862 to 1864 Hanover's "enrollment dropped and many students withdrew to enter armies," so an understanding of why he drops out becomes apparent. The fact that Frank continued on with his studies gives a sense of his character. A clearer image of his character then comes from the 1920 census, showing that he became a minister, which suggests that he believed that violence was not the answer.

Sources:  Elias Riggs Monfort to Margaret C. Monfort, October 8, 1862; Annual Catalogue and Circular of Hanover College (Madison, Indiana: Wm. P. Levy & Co's Printing and Binding Establishment, 1860) 6;  "Hanover College History" (http://library.hanover.edu/archives/hchistory.php); 1920 United States Federal Census, s.v "Francis C. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Carlton Mhangami, HC 2018       


Monfort, Joseph T.
Elias Riggs Monfort later married Emma Taylor, and their first child was Joseph T. Monfort. Joseph was born in Indiana in about 1870. He did receive schooling while he lived in the Hamilton County, Ohio, region. He was an older brother to Hannah and Margaret Monfort. Joseph would grow up and be married between 1900 and 1910. He would have two children with his wife, Anna S. Monfort. His sons names were Elias Riggs Monfort, Jr., and Joseph S. Monfort.

Sources: 1880 United States Census, s.v. "Elias Riggs Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1900 United States Census, s.v. "Jos T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census, s.v. "Jos T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Layne Taylor, HC 2017       

Monfort, Margaret

The 1860 census shows that Maggie Monfort was an educated woman because she attended school that year. Her father was principal at the Glendale Female College, which he stated on the census.  The school is also mentioned in the History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio; Their Past and Present.  This implies that Maggie was attending that college during the war.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Springfield, Hamilton County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio; Their Past and Present (Cincinnati, OH: S.B. Nelson & CO., Publishers, 1894), 443.

-- Michele Navarrete, HC 2017       

Margaret Monfort was born in 1846 in Indiana and was the youngest of four children of a wealthy family. Elias was the oldest, being four years older. In 1860, her family was living in Springfield, Ohio, and they had six servants: five from Ireland and one from Prussia
Source: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Diane Jackson, HC 2017       

Newburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Newburg was too small to appear on a map showing the whole country, which makes sense, as Monfort describes it as only having "10 or fifteen inhabitants." But from Monfort's letter we know that it was about thirteen miles away from Newport and lay along the Baltimore West Union Railroad.

George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley, Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ed. Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S. Lamont, compiled Calvin D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135, 140, 171.
-- Brianna White, HC 2017       

Parkersburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Parkersburg lies on the Ohio River approximately seventy-five miles southwest of Marietta.  It is now in the state of West Virginia, but that area had been Virginia before the state split off during the Civil War.   Although Monfort does not go into detail about it, the town was large enough to merit recording on a map from the era showing the full country. In this border town between Ohio and Virginia, the Cincinnati Hillsborough Railroad turned into the Baltimore West Union Railroad, also known regionally as the B. & O. Railroad. The railroad's path went East along the northern border of what is now West Virginia, just south of Maryland, through Union, then Clarksburg, before arriving in Grafton, which lay on the Monogahela River.

Sources: George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley, Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ed. Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S. Lamont, compiled Calvin D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135, 140, 171.

-- Brianna White, HC 2017       

Pope, John
John Pope was a collateral descendant of George Washington, and his uncle was an United State Senator from Kentucky. After four years, he won brevets of lieutenant and captain for gallantry in the Mexican War. Pope went from lieutenant to captain to brigadier general to major general. He even commanded former superiors.

Pope blamed other people for his mistakes. He allowed R. E. Lee to divide and put back together the two wings under Jackson and Longstreet. McClellan took over after that and forced Pope to take a back seat. Pope's order reflected poorly on his command, and people disliked him.

Source: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1964), pp. 376-377.

-- Daijon Johnson, HC 2014       



Reily, Robert
Col. Robert Reily led the 75th Ohio Regiment, and he was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863.  Before the battle, he had told his men "Some of us will not see another sunrise.  If there is a man in the ranks who is not ready to die for his country, let him come to me, and I will give him a pass to go to the rear, for I want no half-hearted, unwilling soldiers or cowards in the ranks to-night."

Source: Stephen W. Sears, Chancellorsville (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996), 269.


Reynolds, Gen. Joseph Jones
E. R. Monfort served in the Union Army under General Joseph Jones Reynolds. General Reynolds was born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky, in 1822. His family moved to Lafayette, Indiana, when Reynolds was fifteen. In 1839, Reynolds joined the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in 1843. After that, he served many military positions and briefly taught at several universities, including West Point and Washington University. At the start of the Civil War, he was living in Indiana once again. Due to his vast military experience, he was appointed colonel of the 10th Regiment of Indiana, and was promoted to general in 1861. He served with the 10th Regiment until 1862, when he resigned to attend business affairs.

In August 1861, Monfort refers to a "camp of 21 thousand rebbles [sic] under Genl. Lee" and expresses concern that a battle will soon start. General Robert E Lee's forces did indeed attack Monfort's brigade under General Reynolds on September 11, 1861 -- less than a month after the letter was written. However, General Reynold's forces were able to successfully keep control of the area for the rest of the year.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), IV: 1633.

-- Jennifer Gilly, HC 2018     


Rosecrans, William Starke
Rosecrans was a well-respected general in the Civil War. He was under the command of Indiana native William Henry Harrison before he became a general himself. Rosecrans received the nickname "Old Rosy" while he was a student at West Point Academy. With much experience from the Mexican War, Major General George B. McClellan appointed Rosecrans General of the 23rd Ohio Infantry as soon as the Civil War began. On September 19, 1862, Confederate General Earl Van Dorn attacked Rosecrans in Corinth. These two officers had much hate towards each other after the Battle of Luka. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson appointed Rosecrans to be the minister to Mexico. William Rosecrans passed away on March 11, 1898, and his remains are in Arlington National Cemetery.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds., "William Starke Rosecrans." Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 1677-1678. Vol. 4 (Santa Barbara, California, 2000).

-- Reilly Reingold, HC 2018           


Shenandoah Valley, Virginia
Elias Riggs Montfort wrote about the Shenandoah Valley while on the march during the Peninsular Campaign in the American Civil War. His regiment was part of the army originally intended to reinforce the Union positions outside of Richmond, Virginia. The infamous Confederate General, "Stonewall" Jackson, led his army to prevent the reinforcements from reaching their intended destinations. Jackson was defeated the Union at Winchester and was then pursued by General Banks. Jackson repelled General Bank's army at Front Royal and then won another battle at Winchester. Jackson then defeated General Fremont's and General Shield's armies and threatened to attack Washington. Jackson turned back near the end of May, which caused the Union troops, including those of Elias Riggs Montfort's regiment, to pursue Jackson into the Shenandoah Valley.

Sources: "From the Shenandoah Valley," New York Times, 14 June 1862. http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "Operations in the Virginia Valley," New York Times, 1 May 1862. http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); R.C. Shriber, "The Battle of Winchester," New York Times, 31 March 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); Snyder, "Important from Virginia," New York Times, 24 August 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "Three Days Later from Europe,"  New York Times, 17 June 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "The Repulse at Fort Royal," New York Times, 25 May 1862, http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); C. H. W., "From the Shenandoah Valley," New York Times, 14 June 1862, http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013).

-- Mason Cheng, HC 2017       

Sheridan, Philip Henry
Philip Henry Sheridan was a Union general during the Civil War. After graduating, he spent eight years on the frontier; he was promoted in 1861. He also served as a quartermaster, as colonel in the 2nd Michigan Calvary, as brigadier general, and finally as major general. During the Battle of Chattanooga, Sheridan overtook the Confederates in a position they had considered "impregnable," which turned U.S. Grant's attention toward Sheridan, assigning him the position of overseeing the entire cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. This brought General Sheridan into "world prominence."

Source: Ezra J. Warner, "Philip Henry Sheridan," Generals in Blue (Louisiana State University Press, 1964), 437-438.

-- Darien Miller, HC 2018       

Strickland, William
William Strickland was 62 years old at the time of the 1850 census. He was born in Pennsylvania and lived in Tennessee at the time. Three others lived with him at the time: Rachel Strickland, Elizabeth Strickland, and F. W. Strickland. Rachel was 52 and was his wife, whom he married on November 3, 1812, when he was around 24. F W and Elizabeth were 20 and 23 respectively and probably were his children. He was known mostly for his architecture work but also painted and sculpted. In 1818 Strickland won a competition to design the Second Bank of the U.S. This building was constructed in 1824, with a mixture of designs from Georgian and Greek Revival. He also proposed an idea for a new room for the House of Representatives around 1844. Strickland died when he was 66, in 1854.

Sources: 1850 United States Census, s.v. "Wm Strickland," Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, accessed through Ancestry.com; Agnes Addison Gilchrist, William Strickland: Architect and Engineer- 1788-1854 (Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 1950) 1-5, 100-103.

-- Brandi Buchanan, HC 2018        

Taylor, Emma

Emma Taylor was born May 1842 in Ohio. Her father's birthplace was in New Hampshire, and her mother's birthplace was in New Jersey. There were nine people living in her house in 1860. She was nineteen years old at the time of the census, so that would make her 22 when she was writing to her brother, Gordon, during the war. The Taylor family lived in Millcreek, Hamilton county, Ohio in 1860. She married Elias Riggs Monfort in 1867; they were both born in 1842.

Source: 1860 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma Taylor," Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through ​ Ancestry.com; 1900 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma J. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Trey Sparks, HC 2017, and Andrew Howard, HC 2018       

Taylor, Joseph Gordon

Joseph Gordon Taylor was born in about 1839 to Eli and Hannah Taylor, who were living in the state of Ohio. In 1860 (before the outbreak of the Civil War), Joseph was 21 years old. He worked as a bank teller and lived with eight family members in Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio. After his involvement in the war, Joseph lived in Washington, Decatur County, Indiana, and had a listed estate value of $30,000 in 1870. Oddly, the 1860 Census incorrectly lists Joseph as "Gorden Taylor," whereas the 1870 census lists him as "J G Taylor."

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Gorden Taylor," Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1870 United States Census, s.v. "J G Taylor," Washington, Decatur County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Josh Ford, HC 2018   

Taylor, Kate

Kate Taylor was born in about 1837, two years before her brother J. Gordon Taylor.  In 1860, they were both living at home (with four other siblings) with their parents in Millcreek, Ohio.

Source: 1860 United States Census, Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v. "Kate Taylor," Ancestry.com.

-- smv 



Vallandigham, Clement Laird

Mentioned by Joseph Gordon Taylor in his June 17, 1863, letter to Emma Taylor and in one from October 21, 1863, Clement Laird Vallandigham acted as the functional leader of the Copperheads. Taylor described him as leading a "peace party" and regarded that role as traitorous. Vallandigham was a pacifist, making it clear as to why a soldier such as Taylor resented him. A congressman in the antebellum period, he strongly opposed Lincoln's presidency. Due to his opposition to Lincoln, Vallandigham was annihilated in his attempt to get reelected in 1862. Disliked and distrusted by the Union and the Confederacy alike, he eventually relocated to Canada in 1863. Vallandigham returned to the United States after the war, wisely choosing to forgo his life in politics. He instead opted to return to his old work as a lawyer.

Sources: Stewart Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Civil War (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988), 670.

-- Josh Ford, HC 2018        


Hanover Historical Texts Project
  Hanover College Department of History