A Guide to the

Below is an alphabetical listing of information about people, events, terms, etc. found in the Elias Riggs Monfort Papers. 
Page images and transcriptions of letters in the collection are available.

Students from GW143/144 "Autobiography: History" (Fall 2013, Winter 2014, and Fall 2014) and His167 (Winter 2019), all taught by  Sarah McNair Vosmeier, contributed to this document.  



Baird, Absalom
Absalom Baird was a Union general in the Civil War. He lived from 1824 to 1905. When this letter was written, Baird was 39 years old. On April 28th, 1862, he was named brigadier general USV. Baird commanded the 27th Brigade of the Cumberland Division in Ohio. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1896 for his work in Jonesboro.

Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 38-39.

-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC 2018    


Crampton, Harvey
Harvey Crampton was a lieutenant in the 75th Regiment of the Ohio Infantry, serving with Elias Monfort.  Later, he led the 146th Regiment (Ohio National Guard) as a colonel.

Source: "U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865," s.v. "Harvey Crampton" (75th Regiment, Ohio Infantry), Ancestry.com; "Movements of the National Guard," Cleveland Morning Leader, 14 May 1864, p. 4.

-- Rachel Mabbitt, Amber Holden, Noah Braun, and Jake Metzler (HC 2022) and smv.   

Emancipation Proclamation
President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in the states that were then still in rebellion.  Many northerners objected.  For instance, Lincoln's party did poorly in the 1862 elections, once voters learned of his plans, and the stock market also declined on news of the proclamation.

Source: Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (New York: Da Capo Press, 1982), 103-5.
-- smv       

Evans, George

George Evans enlisted as a private in Company M of the 6th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry.

Source: "U.S. Civil War Soliders, 1861-1865," s.v. "George W. Evans" (6th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry), Ancestry.com.

-- research by Brian Hayes, Delaney Benner, Zach Dean

Fort Wagner
This South Carolina fort is famous as the location of the heroic charge by the African-American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (on July 18, 1863).  In making the assault under heavy fire, the soldiers of the 54th proved that African Americans could serve "as gallantly as any troops could," as one reporter put it. Almost half of the men making the charge were killed, including their white commanding officer, Robert Gould Shaw.  The famous Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, commemorates the event, as does the movie Glory (1989).

Sources: "Exhibit 54th Mass Casualty List," American Originals, National Archives and Records Administration, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/54thmass.html (accessed 20 Nov. 2014); "Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment," Boston African-American National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/boaf/historyculture/shaw.htm (accessed 20 Nov. 2014).

-- smv          

Glendale Female College
Margaret Monfort attended Glendale Female College, where her father was principal. This college was in Glendale, Ohio.  It had been called the American Female College, but the name was changed to Glendale Female College after her father, Rev. Joseph G. Monfort, and others took over the management. This college was more on the lines of a finishing school, a private boarding school and a public school during day. The school had four divisions of studies, and the girls were highly supervised by adults. Religion was important: everyone walked to church together on Sundays. Competition from better private schools and coeducational colleges made financial difficulties, and in the 1920s, it closed.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Hanover Jefferson County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; Mary Lynn Bryan and Barbara Bair, The Selected Papers of Jane Addams: vol. 1: Preparing to Lead, 1860-81. (University of Illinois Press 2003), 190-191.

-- Ashley Templeman, HC 2017             

Granger, Gordon


Granger, Robert S.


Harris, Andrew L.
Elias Riggs Monfort and Andrew L. Harris were both officers in the 75th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (OVI).

Source:  Joseph B. Foraker, James S. Robinson, and H. A. Axline, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1866, Volume 6 (1886), 235.

-- Drew Shafer, HC 2018           

Howard, Oliver Otis
Oliver Otis Howard was born on November 8, 1830, in Leeds, Maine. His father's name was Rowland Baily Howard, and his mother's name was Eliza Otis Howard. He was a Union general in the Civil War. In 1854, Howard graduated from West Point, and he ranked 4th out of 46 students. He married Elizabeth Ann Waite on February 14th, 1855, and they would have seven children together. In the late 1850s, Howard was serving in Florida, and he converted to evangelical Christianity. He became so interested in that religion that he gave serious thought to becoming a priest. He was an instructor of mathematics at West Point in September 1857. He fought in many battles and gained many promotions. In the Battle of Fair Oaks, Howard was wounded, and the injury required him to have his right arm amputated above the elbow. He also fought in the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which is the battle that Sam Ruckman was accused of running away from.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), II: 1008-1010.

-- Zach Barnes, HC 2018       

Hurt, Joseph "Trygood"
Joseph "Trygood" Hurt was born in Ohio and lived in Ohio most of his life, not including his time served Company F of the Ohio Infantry's 75th Regiment. Hurt served his entire Civil War tenure as a private. Also known as Trygood and Hirt, he was approximately twenty-eight years old in 1862.  According to the 1860 census, Hurt was married to Maria Hurt and had one child, Martha A. Hurt, while sharing a home with William. C. Whitacre and Tevitha Whitacre, both young children at the time. Hurt and his family lived in Salem, Warren County, Ohio.

Sources: "U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865," s.v. Trygood Hurt, ancestry.com, http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November 2013);  1860 United States Census, s.v. Joseph Hurt," http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November 2013).

-- Cody Reister, HC 2017       


Marthell, Emil
Capt. Emil Marthell was Commissary of Subsistence on Folly Island, South Carolina, in 1863. (The "C.S.V." in his signature line stands for "Commissary of Subsistence of Volunteers." He was court martialed in January 1864 for neglect of duty and fraud. According to the charges, he embezzled over $2000 from the transactions he controlled as Commissary, and he  "did willfully conceal or destroy, or cause to be destroyed, all memorandum books of the sales of Commissary Stores" for September through December, 1863.   He was acquitted in January, but the Major General who reviewed his case the following month "disapproved" the acquittal, nevertheless releasing him on a technicality.

Sources: General Court Martial Orders from the Headquarters, Department of the South, 1862-1868, available through the Library of Congress.  War Department, General Orders No. 15 (Washington, D.C.: [Government Printing Office], 1861), available through the Internet Archive.
-- smv 

Miller, Abram O.
Abram Miller was a Union officer in the Civil War. He was born in Ohio. On April 5th, 1862, he became the Lt. Colonel in the 10th Indiana Regiment. On August 24th, 1862, he became the Colonel of the 72nd Indiana Regiment.

Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 550-551.

-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC 2018       

Monfort, Elias Riggs
Note that ERM used both the "Montfort" and "Monfort" spellings.

Elias Riggs Monfort was born in Greensburg, Indiana, on March 2, 1842.   He had two younger siblings: in 1860, Francis was sixteen years old, and Margaret was fourteen.   They were both in school then.  (There was also a twenty-year-old woman named Isabelle Ferry living in the household in 1860, as well as six servants.)   He had an uncle whose name was also Elias; that uncle served for sixty years as a Christian missionary in Turkey.

The Monfort family moved to the Cincinnati area in 1855 because J. G. Monfort became principal of the Glendale Female College.  E. R. Monfort was educated in Cincinnati and at Glendale, and he entered Hanover College in 1859. In the year the Civil War began, on June 18, 1861, he joined Company A, 6th Ohio volunteer infantry.  Six months later, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in Company F, Ohio 75th Infantry Regiment.  In January 1863, he was promoted to captain. He was injured by a gunshot to the hip at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, he became disabled. Unable to fight, he was decommissioned on December 9th, 1863.  He returned to Hanover College in 1864, and he graduated from Hanover the next year. He graduated from a Cincinnati law school in 1867 and started working at the Ohio Court.

By 1880, Monfort's household included his wife, Emma (Taylor) Monfort, and three children (Joseph, Hannah, and Margaret), along with two servants. Monfort worked as an editor in 1880. Their neighbors were the Swansons and the Reeders.   In 1910, he was a postmaster.  He died on July 29th, 1920, in Oaks Corner, New York. He was buried back in Hamilton County, Ohio, in the Spring Grove Cemetery.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton, Ohio, digital image s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," Ancestry.com; Memoirs of the Lower Ohio Valley: Personal and Genealogical vol.1 (Federal Publishing Company, 1905), 24-26, (accessed through https://books.google.com,  4 Nov. 2014);  1880 United States Federal Census, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v "Elias Riggs Monfort," Ancestry.com; "Capt. Elias Riggs Monfort" www.findagrave.com; "U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865," s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," Ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census, Cincinnati Ward 3, Hamilton, Ohio, Ancestry.com.

– research by  Kevin Christie, HC 2018, Diane Jackson, HC 2017, Asumi Oba, HC 2018, Brittany Slaughter, HC 2018, Drew Stutz, HC 2017, Sarah McNair Vosmeier, Eddy Wagner, HC 2017.


Monfort, Francis C.
In Elias Riggs Montfort's letter to his sister on the 8th of October 1863, he mentions that he received a letter from Frank, who says he is studying hard since he left Hanover. Although little information is given about Frank, it still allows for a starting point in the investigation of his life. Knowing that he attended Hanover sometime before 1863, I found from the Hanover archives that his full name is actually Francis C. Montfort. He began his freshman year here in June 1860, joining his brother, Elias, who was already in his sophomore year; so there was about a year between them. Frank continued his studies at Hanover until 1862, his junior year. However, surprisingly, his brother's name did not appear in this year, which was supposed to be his senior year.  It seemed unusual that he would suddenly drop out when he had one year left to complete school. After searching through Hanover's history, I found that in the year 1862 to 1864 Hanover's "enrollment dropped and many students withdrew to enter armies," so an understanding of why he drops out becomes apparent. The fact that Frank continued on with his studies gives a sense of his character. A clearer image of his character then comes from the 1920 census, showing that he became a minister, which suggests that he believed that violence was not the answer.

Sources:  Elias Riggs Monfort to Margaret C. Monfort, October 8, 1862; Annual Catalogue and Circular of Hanover College (Madison, Indiana: Wm. P. Levy & Co's Printing and Binding Establishment, 1860) 6;  "Hanover College History" (http://library.hanover.edu/archives/hchistory.php); 1920 United States Federal Census, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v "Francis C. Monfort," Ancestry.com.

-- Carlton Mhangami, HC 2018       

Monfort, Hannah (Riggs)
Elias Monfort’s mother, Hannah (Riggs) Monfort, was born in New Jersey.  She was forty-four years old in 1860. Three of her children were living at home then.

Source: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v. “J. G. Monfort,” Ancestry.com.

-- Asumi Oba, HC 2018

Monfort, Joseph Glass
Elias Monfort's father was born in Ohio.   The Monfort family moved to the Cincinnati area in 1855 because J. G. Monfort became principal of the Glendale Female College.   In 1860, he was forty-six years old and the principal at the Glendale Female College and had a total worth of $15,000 in 1860. The Monfort household included six servants, whose labor probably supported the school. Five of those servants (all women between 26 and 32 years old) were born in Ireland, and the other (a man) came from Prussia. 

Source: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v. “J. G. Monfort,” Ancestry.com.

-- Drew Stutz, HC 2017, Asumi Oba, HC 2018, and smv


Monfort, Joseph T.
Elias Riggs Monfort later married Emma Taylor, and their first child was Joseph T. Monfort. Joseph was born in Indiana in about 1870. He did receive schooling while he lived in the Hamilton County, Ohio, region. He was an older brother to Hannah and Margaret Monfort. Joseph would grow up and be married between 1900 and 1910. He would have two children with his wife, Anna S. Monfort. His sons names were Elias Riggs Monfort, Jr., and Joseph S. Monfort.

Sources: 1880 United States Census, s.v. "Elias Riggs Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1900 United States Census, s.v. "Jos T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census, s.v. "Jos T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Layne Taylor, HC 2017       

Monfort, Margaret (Maggie)
Margaret Monfort was born in 1846 in Indiana and was Elias Riggs Monfort's youngest sister. (He was four years older). The 1860 census shows that Maggie Monfort was part of a wealthy family and that she attended school that year. Her father was principal at the Glendale Female College, which is mentioned in the History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio; Their Past and Present.  This implies that Maggie was attending that college during the war.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton County, Indiana, digital image s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Ancestry.com; History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio; Their Past and Present (Cincinnati, OH: S.B. Nelson & CO., Publishers, 1894), 443.

-- research by Diane Jackson, HC 2017 and Michele Navarrete, HC 2017       

Monfort, Sarah Elonor (Thompson)
Sarah Monfort was born in 1826 and lived in Gettysburg during the Civil War.  Elias Riggs Monfort seems to have stayed with her family while he was recovering from wounds received at the Battle of Gettysburg. In 1860, her siblings Jane, J. Cassatt, and Maria C. Thompson were living with her mother, Mary Thompson. (G.A. Evans gives news of "Mrs. Thompson," "Mariah," Jane and perhaps Cassatt.) In the years after the war, Sarah Monfort lived next door to her siblings.  Cassatt was a laborer, Maria was a teacher, and Jane did tailoring and kept house. In 1880, Sarah Monfort supported herself by taking in boarders -- something she may have done immediately after the battle as well.   She had two daughters living at home in 1870:  Mary was twelve at the time of the battle, and Jennie was nine.

Sources: "Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1967," digital image s.v. "Sarah Elonor Montfort" (1827-1908), Ancestry.com;  "Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1967," digital image s.v. "Maria C Thompson" (1824-1910), Ancestry.com;  1870 United States Census, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania, digital image s.v. "Sarah E. Monford," Ancestry.com; 1880 United States Census, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania, digital image s.v. "Sarah E. Monfort," Ancestry.com.

-- research by Laura Estevez-Madiedo (HC 2022), Elizabeth Smith (HC 2021), and smv        

Newburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Newburg was too small to appear on a map showing the whole country, which makes sense, as Monfort describes it as only having "10 or fifteen inhabitants." But from Monfort's letter we know that it was about thirteen miles away from Newport and lay along the Baltimore West Union Railroad.

George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley, Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ed. Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S. Lamont, compiled Calvin D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135, 140, 171.
-- Brianna White, HC 2017       

Parkersburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Parkersburg lies on the Ohio River approximately seventy-five miles southwest of Marietta.  It is now in the state of West Virginia, but that area had been Virginia before the state split off during the Civil War.   Although Monfort does not go into detail about it, the town was large enough to merit recording on a map from the era showing the full country. In this border town between Ohio and Virginia, the Cincinnati Hillsborough Railroad turned into the Baltimore West Union Railroad, also known regionally as the B. & O. Railroad. The railroad's path went East along the northern border of what is now West Virginia, just south of Maryland, through Union, then Clarksburg, before arriving in Grafton, which lay on the Monogahela River.

Sources: George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley, Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ed. Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S. Lamont, compiled Calvin D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135, 140, 171.

-- Brianna White, HC 2017       

Pope, John
John Pope was a collateral descendant of George Washington, and his uncle was an United State Senator from Kentucky. After four years, he won brevets of lieutenant and captain for gallantry in the Mexican War. Pope went from lieutenant to captain to brigadier general to major general. He even commanded former superiors.

Pope blamed other people for his mistakes. He allowed R. E. Lee to divide and put back together the two wings under Jackson and Longstreet. McClellan took over after that and forced Pope to take a back seat. Pope's order reflected poorly on his command, and people disliked him.

Source: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1964), pp. 376-377.

-- Daijon Johnson, HC 2014       

Reily, Robert
Col. Robert Reily led the 75th Ohio Regiment, and he was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863.  Before the battle, he had told his men "Some of us will not see another sunrise.  If there is a man in the ranks who is not ready to die for his country, let him come to me, and I will give him a pass to go to the rear, for I want no half-hearted, unwilling soldiers or cowards in the ranks to-night."

Source: Stephen W. Sears, Chancellorsville (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996), 269.


Reynolds, Gen. Joseph Jones
E. R. Monfort served in the Union Army under General Joseph Jones Reynolds. General Reynolds was born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky, in 1822. His family moved to Lafayette, Indiana, when Reynolds was fifteen. In 1839, Reynolds joined the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in 1843. After that, he served many military positions and briefly taught at several universities, including West Point and Washington University. At the start of the Civil War, he was living in Indiana once again. Due to his vast military experience, he was appointed colonel of the 10th Regiment of Indiana, and was promoted to general in 1861. He served with the 10th Regiment until 1862, when he resigned to attend business affairs.

In August 1861, Monfort refers to a "camp of 21 thousand rebbles [sic] under Genl. Lee" and expresses concern that a battle will soon start. General Robert E Lee's forces did indeed attack Monfort's brigade under General Reynolds on September 11, 1861 -- less than a month after the letter was written. However, General Reynold's forces were able to successfully keep control of the area for the rest of the year.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), IV: 1633.

-- Jennifer Gilly, HC 2018     


Rosecrans, William Starke
Rosecrans was a well-respected general in the Civil War. He was under the command of Indiana native William Henry Harrison before he became a general himself. Rosecrans received the nickname "Old Rosy" while he was a student at West Point Academy. With much experience from the Mexican War, Major General George B. McClellan appointed Rosecrans General of the 23rd Ohio Infantry as soon as the Civil War began. On September 19, 1862, Confederate General Earl Van Dorn attacked Rosecrans in Corinth. These two officers had much hate towards each other after the Battle of Luka. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson appointed Rosecrans to be the minister to Mexico. William Rosecrans passed away on March 11, 1898, and his remains are in Arlington National Cemetery.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds., "William Starke Rosecrans." Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Vol. 4 (Santa Barbara, California, 2000).

-- Reilly Reingold, HC 2018           


Shenandoah Valley, Virginia
Elias Riggs Montfort wrote about the Shenandoah Valley while on the march during the Peninsular Campaign in the American Civil War. His regiment was part of the army originally intended to reinforce the Union positions outside of Richmond, Virginia. The infamous Confederate General, "Stonewall" Jackson, led his army to prevent the reinforcements from reaching their intended destinations. Jackson was defeated the Union at Winchester and was then pursued by General Banks. Jackson repelled General Bank's army at Front Royal and then won another battle at Winchester. Jackson then defeated General Fremont's and General Shield's armies and threatened to attack Washington. Jackson turned back near the end of May, which caused the Union troops, including those of Elias Riggs Montfort's regiment, to pursue Jackson into the Shenandoah Valley.

Sources: "From the Shenandoah Valley," New York Times, 14 June 1862. http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "Operations in the Virginia Valley," New York Times, 1 May 1862. http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); R.C. Shriber, "The Battle of Winchester," New York Times, 31 March 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); Snyder, "Important from Virginia," New York Times, 24 August 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "Three Days Later from Europe,"  New York Times, 17 June 1862,  http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); "The Repulse at Fort Royal," New York Times, 25 May 1862, http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013); C. H. W., "From the Shenandoah Valley," New York Times, 14 June 1862, http://www.nytimes.com (accessed November 24, 2013).

-- Mason Cheng, HC 2017   


Sheridan, Philip Henry
Philip Henry Sheridan was a Union general during the Civil War. After graduating, he spent eight years on the frontier; he was promoted in 1861. He also served as a quartermaster, as colonel in the 2nd Michigan Calvary, as brigadier general, and finally as major general. During the Battle of Chattanooga, Sheridan overtook the Confederates in a position they had considered "impregnable," which turned U.S. Grant's attention toward Sheridan, assigning him the position of overseeing the entire cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. This brought General Sheridan into "world prominence."

Source: Ezra J. Warner, "Philip Henry Sheridan," Generals in Blue (Louisiana State University Press, 1964), 437-438.

-- Darien Miller, HC 2018       

Strickland, William
William Strickland was 62 years old at the time of the 1850 census. He was born in Pennsylvania and lived in Tennessee at the time. Three others lived with him at the time: Rachel Strickland, Elizabeth Strickland, and F. W. Strickland. Rachel was 52 and was his wife, whom he married on November 3, 1812, when he was around 24. F W and Elizabeth were 20 and 23 respectively and probably were his children. He was known mostly for his architecture work but also painted and sculpted. In 1818 Strickland won a competition to design the Second Bank of the U.S. This building was constructed in 1824, with a mixture of designs from Georgian and Greek Revival. He also proposed an idea for a new room for the House of Representatives around 1844. Strickland died when he was 66, in 1854.

Sources: 1850 United States Census, s.v. "Wm Strickland," Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, accessed through Ancestry.com; Agnes Addison Gilchrist, William Strickland: Architect and Engineer- 1788-1854 (Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 1950) 1-5, 100-103.

-- Brandi Buchanan, HC 2018        

Taylor, Emma

Emma Taylor was born May 1842 in Ohio. Her father's birthplace was in New Hampshire, and her mother's birthplace was in New Jersey. There were nine people living in her house in 1860. She was nineteen years old at the time of the census, so that would make her 22 when she was writing to her brother, Gordon, during the war. The Taylor family lived in Millcreek, Hamilton county, Ohio in 1860. She married Elias Riggs Monfort in 1867; they were both born in 1842.

Source: 1860 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma Taylor," Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through ​ Ancestry.com; 1900 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma J. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Trey Sparks, HC 2017, and Andrew Howard, HC 2018       

Taylor, Joseph Gordon

Joseph Gordon Taylor was born in about 1839 to Eli and Hannah Taylor, who were living in the state of Ohio. In 1860 (before the outbreak of the Civil War), Joseph was 21 years old. He worked as a bank teller and lived with eight family members in Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio. After his involvement in the war, Joseph lived in Washington, Decatur County, Indiana, and had a listed estate value of $30,000 in 1870. Oddly, the 1860 Census incorrectly lists Joseph as "Gorden Taylor," whereas the 1870 census lists him as "J G Taylor."

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Gorden Taylor," Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1870 United States Census, s.v. "J G Taylor," Washington, Decatur County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com.

-- Josh Ford, HC 2018   

Taylor, Kate

Kate Taylor was born in about 1837, two years before her brother J. Gordon Taylor.  In 1860, they were both living at home (with four other siblings) with their parents in Millcreek, Ohio.

Source: 1860 United States Census, Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, digital image s.v. "Kate Taylor," Ancestry.com.

-- smv    


Torrence, John

An envelope addressed to John Torrence shows that he was part of Company F, 75th Regiment, Ohio Volunteers. As that was Elias Monfort's company as well, they must have known each other in that context. It is not clear why a letter addressed to him is in the Monfort Collection.

-- smv    


Vallandigham, Clement Laird

Mentioned by Joseph Gordon Taylor in his June 17, 1863, letter to Emma Taylor and in one from October 21, 1863, Clement Laird Vallandigham acted as the functional leader of the Copperheads. Taylor described him as leading a "peace party" and regarded that role as traitorous. Vallandigham was a pacifist, making it clear as to why a soldier such as Taylor resented him. A congressman in the antebellum period, he strongly opposed Lincoln's presidency. Due to his opposition to Lincoln, Vallandigham was annihilated in his attempt to get reelected in 1862. Disliked and distrusted by the Union and the Confederacy alike, he eventually relocated to Canada in 1863. Vallandigham returned to the United States after the war, wisely choosing to forgo his life in politics. He instead opted to return to his old work as a lawyer.

Sources: Stewart Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Civil War (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988), 670.

-- Josh Ford, HC 2018        


Hanover Historical Texts Project
  Hanover College Department of History