Foundations of the Modern Age
Fall Semester 1999

Study Questions for the First Exam

1. What were the origins of the Reformation? In what ways did Luther's views of salvation and the church depart from the views of the Medieval Church?

2. Compare the political theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. You should include a consideration of their views of the "state of nature," "law of nature," the social contract, the form of government, and the rights, liberties, and obligations of subjects.

3. Compare Newtonian science with medieval science. What were the obstacles that the "new science" faced in the sixteenth and seventeenth century?

4. What were the motives for European imperialism between 1400 and 1700? Most imperialists believed in the inherent superiority of their civilization over "barbarians." Montaigne disagreed. Reconstruct Montaigne's argument in his essay, "Of Cannibals," and explain why Montaigne would disagree with the imperialists.

5. Reconstruct the evolution of capitalism from its origins in Europe's traditional economy through the seventeenth century. Reconstruct the evolution of the nation-state from its origins in feudalism through the seventeenth century What were the obstacles that capitalism and the nation-state faced?

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