Foundations of the Modern Age
Fall Semester 1998

Study Questions for the Second Exam

1. Drawing upon the works of Hume and Voltaire, explain the philosophes' critique of Christianity and their argument for the intellectual and moral superiority of "deism."

2. What were the origins of the French Revolution?

3. Using the works of Metternich, Burke, and Mazzini, explain the ideals and assumptions of conservatism and nationalism as the two ideologies emerged during the era of Liberal Revolutions (1776-1848).

3. According to Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, what roles did (and will) the bourgeoisie play in world history?

4. According to Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, how and why will the proletariat seize power from the bourgeoisie? In what ways will the new proletariat regime differ from the old bourgeois regime?

5. How does Hobhouse's liberalism differ from the classical liberalism of Locke and Smith? How does the socialism of Bernstein and Webb differ from the socialism of Marx and Engels? Why did liberalism and socialism begin to change in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?

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