Foundations of the Modern Age
Fall Semester 1998

Study Questions for the First Exam

1. Compare Protestant and Catholic theology in the sixteenth-century, giving consideration to the similarities and differences in their assumptions about human nature, salvation, and the Church. You should draw upon the texts of Luther, Calvin, and the Council of Trent.

2. Compare the political theories of Hobbes, and Locke. You should include a consideration of their views of the "state of nature," the social contract, the form of government, and the rights, liberties, and obligations of subjects.

3. Explain the "new science" and "new scientific method" of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries, comparing the new science with the old. What were the obstacles that the "new science" faced in this period? Your answer should draw upon the texts of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, and Newton.

4. Synthesize the major patterns of European imperialism between 1400 and 1750, giving consideration to (1) how and why Europe expanded and (2) the impact that Europe had on the other civilizations of the world.

5. Explain the origins and consequences of capitalism in Europe between 1200 and 1750. What were the obstacles that capitalism faced in Europe? Your answers should draw upon the text of Thomas Mun.

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