Foundations of the Modern Age
Fall Semester 1997

Study Questions for the Second Exam

1. Drawing upon the works of Voltaire, Hume, and Smith, explain the beliefs, ideals, and objectives of the philosophes.

2. What were the origins of the French Revolution? How and why was there a shift from a constitutional monarchy to a radical republic?

3. Analyze the arguments of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in The Communist Manifesto. You should include a consideration of their ideas about (1) historical change (dialectical materialism); (2) the origins and historical role of the bourgeoisie; (3) the (predicted) origins of the proletariat revolution; (4) and the (predicted) nature of the new revolutionary society and its differences with bourgeois society.

4. Write an essay that analyzes the theory and practice of Liberalism, Conservatism, and Nationalism in Europe from 1815 to 1871, giving consideration to the successes and failures of each of these ideologies.

5. In what ways had the "permanent" Industrial Revolution change European society by the late nineteenth century? In what ways had society, government, and politics changed in comparison with the era of the early Industrial Revolution?

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