Records of Hanover Academy

Transcribed by Heather Haralson

Edited with Introduction by Michael J. Poor


In early nineteenth-century America, the notion of a developing West included what today is geographically the Midwestern United States. The Presbyterian church in America, already firmly established east of the Appalachian Mountains, sought to gain an equally strong foothold in this developing West. The Church was organized according to a denominational hierarchy starting with individual congregations. Churches in a certain area made up a presbytery, and presbyteries comprised larger units called synods. The Church established itself in the West by organizing from the bottom to the top of the hierarchy.

In 1823, the Presbytery of Louisville petitioned the Synod of Kentucky to create a new Presbytery north of the Ohio River. The petition was granted, and the Synod formed the Presbytery of Salem, which included most of Illinois and Indiana. At its first meeting, the Presbytery appointed a committee to look into ways to educate the "poor and pious youth" of the West for the ministry. This committee, of which John Finley Crowe was a member, laid the groundwork for establishing a new Presbyterian Academy in the western United States. By late 1825, another committee, appointed by the Presbytery to decide a location for the Academy, chose Hanover, Indiana, as the site where young men would be educated in the West for becoming Presbyterian ministers.

Due to the growth of the number of churches in the Presbytery of Salem, it was divided into the three smaller Presbyteries of Wabash, Salem, and Madison. The latter Presbytery assumed the responsibilities of promoting the new Academy since Hanover was within Madison's jurisdiction. In the Fall of 1826, the Madison Presbytery asked Crowe, who was minister of the Hanover Church, to open a private school in preparation of their subsequent action for the Academy. Crowe thus opened a small grammar school in a log cabin on his premises on January 1, 1827. Over a year later, the Madison Presbytery convened to discuss the acceptance of the new Academy where Crowe had opened his school of six students.

The Records of Hanover Academy begin with the minutes from that Presbytery meeting in April of 1828. They cover the meetings attended by the Academy's Board of Trustees up to 1833, shortly after the school became a nationally recognized liberal arts college. The minutes from three historical meetings, the April 1828 meeting of the Madison Presbytery, the October 1829 meeting of the Synod of Indiana, and the October 1830 meeting of the Board, have been excerpted in their entirety. Other passages were selected to demonstrate the important actions taken by Hanover College's founding generation to establish and sustain Indiana's oldest liberal arts institution.(1)

Records of Hanover Academy

At the Spring meeting of Madison Presbytery, held in the Sand Creek Church,(2)

April 1828, the following Resolutions were proposed and adopted, viz.

Resolved, That we deem it important to the interests of the church, that a School should be established within our bounds, in which young men of promising talents and good moral character, may receive such an education as, with the blessing of God, may qualify them for usefulness in the Church; - and whereas a School of this description has been established, at Hanover, in Jefferson Co. under the care of the Rev. John Finley Crow, with assurance of liberal patronage from those in the vicinity, provided it be taken under the superintendance of this Presbytery, therefore,

Resolved further, That we take said School under our patronage, and that Messrs.(3) Crow and Duncan be a committee to report a plan for its organization and government.

Messrs. Crow and Duncan accordingly reported the following plan, which was adopted, viz.

1. The School shall be known by the name of the "Hanover Academy."

2. It shall be under the care and patronage of the Madison Presbytery.

3. The ordained Ministers belonging to the Presbytery, together with four laymen, in full communion in the Presbyterian Church, living in the vicinity of the Academy, and elected annually by said ministers, shall constitute a Board of Trustees for its superintendance and government, - any seven of whom shall constitute a quorum to do business.

4. The Board of Trustees, in connection with the Teacher, or Teachers of the Academy, shall have power to make Bye-laws for the regulation of the School.

5. A committee of three shall be appointed by the Presbytery, at each of its stated, semi-annual meetings, called a "Visiting Committee," whose duty it shall be to visit the School at least once during the progress of the Session, to attend its examination at the close, and to report to the Presbytery.

6. An agent shall be appointed by the Presbytery, annually, to solicit donations to aid the funds of Hanover Academy. And it is distinctly understood that all funds thus procured are to be at the disposal of the Trustees.

The following laymen were then appointed members of the Board of Trustees, viz.

Samuel Smock

George Logan

William Reid, and

Samuel Hanna.

Resolved, that the Visiting Committee consist of

John M. Dickey

James H. Johnston, and

Samuel Gregg -

Resolved, that Mr. Crow be appointed agent.


At the Fall meeting of Madison Presbytery, held at Hanover, October, 1828(4), the following Report was made by the Visiting Committee of Hanover Academy, which was adopted, viz.

The Visiting Committee of Hanover Academy, report, that they have attended to the business assigned them, and visited said School twice, since their appointment. They were present at an examination of the Scholars on the 2nd day of the present month.

They have it in their power to state that both these examinations were very satisfactory: and afforded evidence of the fidelity of the Teacher, and the diligence of the Students.

The committee would further state, that the condition and prospects of the School are of a very encouraging kind. The number of students at present is sixteen, and a considerable addition is expected next Session. The character of the students is such in respect to talents, morality, and a serious regard for religion, as to afford the promise that some of them will hereafter be useful either as preachers of the gospel, or by otherwise promoting the best interests of their fellow-men.

The committee earnestly recommend[s] the School, as highly worthy of confidences and encouragement. They doubt not that it may be rendered the means of lasting and extensive usefulness.

A donation of a lot for building, and the proceeds of other lots, has been made for the benefit of the School, by Williamson Dunn Esqr. It is in contemplation, next year, to erect a two story brick building, 40 feet by 25, for completing which the necessary materials and labour have been subscribed.

The committee finally recommended that the constitution and regulations, adopted at the last meeting of the Presbytery, be revised, that the number of Trustees be increased, and that application be made to the Legislature, next winter for an act of incorporation. . . .


At the Spring meeting of Madison Presbytery, held at Paris,(5)April 1829, the committee appointed at the previous meeting of the Presbytery, to revise the Constitution of Hanover Academy, and to apply to the Legislature for a charter, reported

That they had made application to the Legislature, and obtained a charter, according to the provisions of which the Board of Trustees were authorized to transfer the corporate privileges to any Body of learned men, whom they might think proper to select.

The report was accepted, and the committee was discharged from the other duty assigned them, i.e. of revising the Constitution.

The Visiting Committee of Hanover Academy reported, That they had attended two examinations of the Students and found them entirely satisfactory. No material change in the state or prospects of the School had taken place since last report, except that a charter, with ample privileges, had been obtained.


Hanover, Feb. 26th, 1829. . . .(6)

An Act of Incorporation, having been obtained, from the General Assembly of Indiana, the same was ordered to be read, and was accepted by the Board, And is as follows, viz.

An Act to incorporate Hanover Academy.

Whereas it has been represented to this General Assembly, that a number of the citizens of Jefferson County, residing in the vicinity of Hanover, in said county, have, by the aid of private contributions, established an Academy at Hanover, by means of which a liberal education may be acquired by the youth of that vicinity; - and whereas it is represented to this General Assembly, that an act to incorporate the said Academy, would greatly promote the laudable object of the Citizens aforesaid, - therefore

Section 1st. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That John Finley Crow, James H. Johnston, Williamson Dunn, George Logan, John M. Dickey, Samuel G. Lowry, Samuel Smock, William Reid, Samuel Gregg, and Jeremiah Sullivan, be, and they are hereby constituted, and appointed a Body corporate and politic to be known by the name of the "Trustees of Hanover Academy," and by that name shall have perpetual succession, with permission to adopt a common seal, with power to alter or change the same at pleasure; and as a Body corporate shall be authorized to carry the object and designs of said Institution into complete effect, - to increase the number of Trustees, whenever it may be deemed necessary, - to employ or appoint Tutors and Professors, in said Academy, - and put the same under the direction of any Body of learned men whom they may select, - to establish a Constitution, Bye-laws, and Regulations for the government and well-being of said Academy, the Tutors, Professors, and Students thereof, not incompatible with the Constitution and Laws of the United States, or of this State; - and by the name and style of the "Trustees of Hanover Academy" may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and be answered unto, in any Court of Law or Equity.

Section 2nd. In case of the death, removal, or other disqualification, of any of the Trustees of said Academy, or of their successors, a majority of the remaining Trustees, shall have power to fill such vacancy, and the person or persons so appointed, shall be vested with the same power and authority as if specially named in this Act, and at any meeting of the Board of Trustees, seven shall constitute a quorum to do business.(7)

The Trustees elected and appointed according to this Act, and their successors, shall have power, in their corporate capacity, to purchase or receive by donation, bequest or devise, any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, monies, rents, goods, and chattels, which may be conveyed, devised, or bequeathed, to them for the use and benefit of said Academy, and shall be required faithfully to apply the same; - provided however, that the land held by said corporation, at any one time, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres. The Trustee first named in this Act, or, in case of his absence, death, or refusal to serve, the next person named, shall give notice of the time and place of the first meeting of the Board of Trustees, and on a majority of them attending, they shall elect a President, Treasurer and Clerk, the two first of whom shall be members of the Board, and they shall thereafter meet on their own adjournments, or may be convened by the President, or any two members of the Board: - They shall have power to erect all necessary buildings, for the use and accommodation of said Academy, and to select a site for the same.

This Act to be in force from and after its passage.

Passed in the Senate Dec. 22nd 1828

Passed in House of Representatives Dec 30th 1828.

After the reading of the foregoing Act of Incorporation, the meeting of the Board was opened with prayer.

The Board then proceeded to elect a President, Treasurer and Clerk.

John M. Dickey(8)

was appointed President

Samuel Smock was appointed Treasurer

and Jas. H. Johnston was appointed Clerk.

Resolved, That two additional Trustees be elected, - whereupon Samuel Hanna and Andrew Spear were duly elected.

Resolved, That John F. Crow be appointed by this Board, the principal of Hanover Academy.

Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint, as soon as practicable, an additional Teacher, possessing the necessary qualifications to superintend the Students in Theology.

Resolved, That Messrs. Crow and Johnston be appointed a committee, to correspond with such individuals as they may think proper in reference to this object.

Resolved, That Messrs. Dickey, Crow and Lowry be appointed a committee to prepare a Constitution, Bye-Laws and Regulations for Hanover Academy, and report the same, as soon as practicable.

Resolved, That it is expedient to connect the "Manual Labour Scheme"(9)

with Hanover Academy, as soon as practicable, and that Messrs. Dickey, Crow, Lowry, Logan and Smock, be appointed a committee to report on that subject, as soon as they conveniently can do it. . . .


The Trustees of Hanover Academy met, at Hanover, agreeably to adjournment, Oct 1st 1829. . . .(10)

The following resolution was adopted, viz.

Whereas it appears, that at a meeting of six members of this Board, held on the 29th of August last, resolutions were adopted, under the impression that six members of the Board constituted a quorum, - and whereas the Act of incorporation requires seven members, and accordingly those resolutions are null and void, unless adopted by a quorum, therefore,

Resolved, That the Board now adopt the several resolutions recorded in the minutes of the meeting above named.

The Board then attended to the reading of all the minutes of Hanover Academy, together with the Act of incorporation.

The Committee appointed to procure an additional Teacher, reported, that they had received a letter from Dr. John Matthews, which letter was read, whereupon it was

Resolved, That said committee be continued, and further be authorized to bring the subject of the Academy before the Synod of Indiana, at its meeting to be held this month, and to request said Body to take the Institution under their care.

The committee appointed to report a plan for connecting the "Manual Labour System"(11)

with the Academy made the following report, which was adopted, viz.

The committee appointed to digest a plan for introducing the "Manual Labour System" into Hanover Academy, beg leave to report.

That they have had the subject under consideration, and are decidedly of opinion that the interests of the Church, the interests of the institution, and especially the interests of the young men who may enjoy its privileges, demand, as soon as may be practicable, the introduction of a system of manual labour; - inasmuch as that seems to be the best way, in which, with the blessing of God, such a degree of health of body, purity of morals, and expansion of intellect, as promises extensive usefulness to the Church, can be, at the same time, secured. They feel by no means prepared, however, to present a plan which they can recommend as free from objections. On the contrary all that they would attempt, is to recommend a few simple regulations, which may serve as the basis of a plan, and which may be altered or amended as circumstances may require. They propose,

1st That measures be immediately taken to erect a building sufficiently large to accommodate a family, and at least twenty students.

2nd That this house, together with the farm, be put into the possession of a man qualified to manage the farm, and superintend the temporal concerns of the whole establishment.

3rd That all the students be required to board with the Steward, except in extraordinary cases, to be determined by the Board of Trustees.

4th That the Steward be bound to furnish all the Students, who may be placed under his care, with boarding, viz. diet, lodging, and candles.

5th That each student be required to pay, in advance, to the Steward, each session, five dollars in specie, and to labour not less than three hours, each day in the week, the Sabbath excepted, under the direction of the Steward, at such business as he may appoint.

6th That such regulations be made that the Students may labour, in rotation, at such specified time as not to interfere with their recitations.

Resolved that a building committee of three be appointed to superintend the erection of the building intended for the use of the School. Messrs. Crow, Dunn and Logan were appointed said committee.

The Board then adjourned to meet at Hanover, on the day of the public examination in the Academy, next Spring. Concluded with prayer.

J.M. Dickey, Pres.

J.H. Johnston, Clerk


Resolutions of the Synod of Indiana,(12)

respecting Hanover Academy.

In the Synod of Indiana, convened at Shoal Creek, Illinois, Oct. 16th 1829.(13)

The order of the day was taken up, namely the report respecting a Theological Seminary, and the following resolution was adopted, viz.

Whereas Hanover Academy has been incorporated, by an act of the Legislature of the State of Indiana, according to which act, the board of Trustees of said Academy, are permitted, by special provision, to place it under the care of any body of learned men that they may select; and whereas the Board, at a late meeting, appointed a committee of their body, to make a tender of the Institution to the Synod of Indiana, that said Synod might avail themselves of the corporate privileges granted, in founding a Theological Seminary, in connexion with the Academy,(14) therefore,

Resolved, that a committee be appointed, on the part of the Synod, to confer with the committee of the Trustees of the Academy, and to report on the subject, as soon as may be practicable. Messrs. John M. Dickey, James Thompson, and Ashbel S. Wells, were appointed said committee.

In the Synod of Indiana, Oct 17th 1829,

The committee appointed to confer with the committee of the Trustees of Hanover Academy, reported, and their report was adopted and is as follows, viz.

The committee appointed to confer with the committee of the Trustees of Hanover Academy, report,

That they have conferred with said committee, and have examined the charter of said Academy, and enquired into its present prospects, and they believe that the interests of the churches within our bounds would be promoted by taking said Academy under the care of this Synod. They therefore recommend the adoption of the following resolutions: viz.

1. That this Synod adopt said Academy as a Synodical School, provided the Trustees of the same will permit the Synod to establish a Theological department, and appoint the Theological Professors.

2. That the Synod will take measures to establish a permanent fund, for the support of Theological Professors, - and if, at any future time, the Synod shall determine to establish another school, within their bounds, the funds collected within the region, that the new school is designed to benefit, shall be appropriated to the said new School, - and if any new Synod shall hereafter be formed, within the present limits of the Synod of Indiana, the amount of funds collected within the bounds of said new Synod, shall be returned to said new Synod, as soon as they shall establish a school.

3. That this Synod appoint a Board of Directors, to superintend The Theological department in Hanover Academy.

4. That the Synod, at this time, appoint a Theological Professor.

5. That the Synod appoint a committee to prepare a plan of union, to be agreed upon, by the Trustees of the Academy, and the Synod of Indiana, and also a plan for the regulation of the Theological department, and that this committee report at the next meeting of the Synod.

Messrs. John R. Moreland, William W. Martin, John M. Dickey, Leander Cobb, and James H. Johnston, were appointed said committee.

After recess, the Synod proceeded, in accordance with one of the above resolutions, to elect, by ballot, a Theological Professor, and on counting the ballots, it was found that the Rev. John Matthews, of Shepherdstown, Virginia, was unanimously elected.

Resolved, That the Stated Clerk be directed to inform the Professor elect, of his appointment.

Resolved, that an Agent be appointed, in each of the Presbyteries in the State of Indiana, to solicit funds for the support of the Theological Professor.

Resolved, that Messrs. Wm. W. Martin, John R. Moreland, John M. Dickey, and Saml. R. Alexander, be appointed Agents, within their respective Presbyteries, for the purpose specified in the above resolution; - and that the Trustees of Hanover Academy be authorized to appoint any other Agent, or Agents, they may deem proper.

Resolved, that the Trustees of Hanover Academy be requested to give commissions and instructions to the Agents above appointed.


Madison Nov. 9th 1829 - . . .(15)

The committee appointed at the last meeting, to make a tender of Hanover Academy to the Synod of Indiana, reported,

That they had discharged the duty assigned them, and that the Synod has agreed to take the Academy under their care, provided the Trustees of the same would permit the Synod to establish a Theological department, and appoint the Theological Professor, - whereupon, it was,

Resolved, That the privilege be granted, and it is hereby granted, to the Synod of Indiana to establish a Theological department, and the Board pledge themselves to appoint as Theological Professors, whomsoever the Synod may elect, or may have elected, and faithfully to appropriate, agreeably to the direction of the Synod, whatever monies may be put into their hands by the Synod, or any of their Agents. And whereas the Rev. John Matthews D.D.(16) has been appointed, by the Synod, Professor of Theology, therefore, Resolved, that we hereby appoint the same. . . .


Hanover April 7th 1830. . . .(17)

Resolved, That tuition in the Academy be $15 per annum - from the commencement of the next session. . . .


Hanover, May 24th 1830. . . .(18)

Resolved, that the clerk of the Board be authorized to correspond with the Professor of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, for the purpose of ascertaining from them whether they can recommend a suitable person to be appointed by the Synod of Indiana, Teacher of Biblical Literature in the Hanover Seminary. . . .


Hanover August 21st 1830. . . .(19)

A letter from Dr. Alexander, of Princeton, in answer to one addressed to him, by the Clerk, by order of this Board, was read, in which J.W. Cunningham, a member of the Seminary at Princeton, was recommended as a suitable person to be appointed Teacher of Biblical Literature in Hanover Seminary.

Resolved, That this Board will recommend J.W. Cunningham to the Synod of Indiana, this fall, as a suitable person to be appointed Teacher of Biblical Literature in Hanover Seminary.

Resolved, That the Board are favorable to Mr. Cunningham's remaining, agreeably to his wishes, at Princeton and Andover, for six months after completing his course. . . .


The Trustees of Hanover Academy met at Madison, Oct 26th 1830(20), at the call of the President. The meeting was opened with prayer.

Present. J.M. Dickey, J. Matthews, J.F. Crow, S.G. Lowry, S. Gregg, T.H. Brown, Jer. Sullivan, and J.H. Johnston.

Resolved, That John W. Cunningham be, and he hereby is, appointed by this Board, Teacher of Oriental and Biblical Literature, for one year, in the Theological Department of Hanover Academy.

Resolved, That the plan of Union between this Board and the Synod of Indiana, which has already been adopted by the latter, be adopted by this Board: it is follows, viz:

Articles of compact between the Trustees of Hanover Academy and the Synod of Indiana.

The Trustees of Hanover Academy agree to give the Synod of Indiana the supervision of said Academy agreeably to the provisions contained in the following articles.

Article 1. That the Theological Seminary about to be erected by the Synod of Indiana shall be located at Hanover Academy, or its immediate vicinity, in Jefferson County, and in such connexion with the Academy as is implied in the following articles, the Seminary being considered the Theological Department of said Academy.(21)

Art. 2. The Trustees engage that the Synod and Directors appointed by them, shall have the whole control of the Theological Department in said Academy, without any let or hindrance from them, the Trustees or their successors; that is to say - the Synod shall appoint their Directors, choose their Professors, carry on their instructions, govern their pupils and manage their funds as to them shall appear best. And the Trustees engage to appoint as Theological Professors in said Academy whomsoever the Synod shall elect, and to dismiss any Theological Professor or Professors, when required so to do by the Synod or Board of Directors, and appoint any person Professor pro. tem. whom the Directors shall recommend. And they further engage to enact and carry into effect, all rules and regulations adopted by the Synod or Board of Directors, in relation to the Theological Department, and to account for all monies or property put into their hands by the Synod, and appropriate or manage the same according to the order or direction of the Synod.

Art. 3. The Synod shall annually appoint a committee whose duty it shall be to visit the Academy, at least twice a year, and report to the Synod.

Art. 4. The Synod may from time to time make such suggestions and recommendations to the Trustees of the Academy as they shall think proper, respecting its management.

Art. 5. The Trustees shall annually report to the Synod the state and prospects of the Academy.

Art. 6. Any alterations may be made to these articles of compact or additions to them, by the joint concurrence of the Synod and Board of Trustees.

Art. 7. These articles of compact shall be binding so soon as they shall have been concurred in by both the Board of Trustees of Hanover Academy, and the Synod of Indiana and shall have been signed by the Moderator and Stated clerk of the Synod, and by the President and Secretary of the Board of Trustees.

Signed, John Matthews, Mod. Synod

October 26th 1830 - J.H. Johnston S.C. Synod

John M. Dickey Pres. T.H.A.

J.H. Johnston Sec. T.H.A.(22)

The Board then adjourned. Concluded with prayer.

John M. Dickey Pres.

Jas. H. Johnston Clerk.


Hanover Nov. 25th 1830(23)

The Trustees of Hanover Academy met. The meeting was opened with prayer.

Present. J.M. Dickey, J. Matthews, J.F. Crow, T.H. Brown, J.H. Johnston, Williamson Dunn, Saml. Smock, Wm. Reid, and Andrew Spear.

Resolved, That the following be adopted as the course of studies to be pursued in Hanover Academy; - it being understood that such additions and alterations may, from time to time be made as the Trustees may deem proper.

Preparatory Course.

English, Latin, and Greek Grammars; Wair's Latin Syntax; Csar's Commentaries; Virgil's Eclogues, Bucolics and ®neids; Cicero's Orations; Collectanea Grca Minora; Modern Geography, and Arithmetic.

Freshman Class.

First Session.

Roman Antiquities begun; Sallust; Grca Majora, Cyropdia and Anabasis; Algebra and English Composition.

Second Session.

Neilson's Greek Exercises; Roman Antiquities finished; Virgil's Georgics; Horace's Odes; Grca Majora, Theophrastus, ®liarus, Polycenus and Herodotus; Geometry and English Composition.

Sophomore Class.

First Session.

Grecian Antiquities commenced; Horace finished; Grca Majora continued; Plain Trigonometry; Measuration of Heights and Distances; Surveying; Navigation, Application of Algebra to Geometry and Conic Sections; English Composition.

Second Session.

Cicero de Officus, de Senectuta, and de Amicitia; Sp[h]erical Trigonometry, Projections, Dialling, Levelling, Nautical Astronomy, First Vol. of Grca Majora finished, Second Vol. begun; Grecian Antiquities finished; English Composition.

Junior Class.

First Session.

Grca Majora continued; Cicero de Oratore; Rhetoric; Natural Philosophy; English Composition.

Second Session.

Grca Majora cont.; Cic[ero] De Oratore finished; Astronomy and Chemistry; Eng[lish] Com[position]; An[cient] and Mod[ern] History. . . .


Hanover June 11th 1831(24)

The Trustees of Hanover Academy, met at the call of J.F. Crow and J.H. Johnston, and the meeting was opened with prayer.

Present - J.M. Dickey, J.F. Crow, J.H. Johnston, T.H. Brown, W. Dunn, S. Hanna, S. Smock, and A. Spear.

Two letters from Thos. Kendall were read, stating his inability, on account of ill health, to come, agreeably to his expectations, and introducing to the Board Col. George Briggs, with a recommendation that said Briggs should be appointed superintendent in his stead.

Further communications were read, whereupon it was

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to confer with Col. Briggs, and report articles of agreement to be adopted by the Board and himself as Steward of Hanover Academy. Messrs. Crow, Smock and Spear were appointed said committee.

The above named committee presented their report which was amended and adopted and is as follows, viz.

Regulations for the Students of Hanover Academy

1. All Students connected with the Institution, are required to board with the Steward, excepting those cases in which they can board with their parents, and extraordinary cases, to be determined by the Board of Trustees.

2. The price of boarding in the Refectory, viz. dieting, shall be one dollar per week.

3. Each student connected with the Institution shall be required to labour at least two hours each day in the week, the Sabbath excepted.

4. Those Students over sixteen years of age, that labour in the garden or on the farm, shall be entitled individually to five cents per hour, which shall be taken out of the price of their board; with the privilege of working as much as will cover the whole expense of their board, at the same rate, provided they continue to maintain a respectable standing in their class; and all Students under the age above named shall be allowed pay at such rate per hour as may be agreed on by the Steward and parents or guardians.

5. Those Students that labour at some mechanical art, shall have the privilege of making their own arrangements respecting their work; provided they labour the above named period of two hours per day and pay the Steward the stipulated sum for boarding.

The Steward will be required

1. To board all the Students who may wish to place themselves under his care and are willing to submit to the regulations of the establishment; furnishing a sufficiency of good and wholesome diet at one dollar per week.

2. To exercise a paternal care over the morals and habits of all the Students committed to his care.

3. To direct and superintend the operations of those who work on the farm, or in the garden, during the hours of labour.

To open an account with each student, giving him credit for every hour he may labour, at the rates specified in a preceding article, to any amount not exceeding the full amount of his board. . . .

Resolved, That the Steward shall be required to report from time to time respecting the manner in which the students comply with the above regulations, and if it shall appear that any student does not labour to the satisfaction of the Steward his compensation shall be reduced to such an amount as the Trustees shall decide. . . .


Hanover July 14th 1831 . . .(25)

Resolved, That the resolution adopted at the last meeting authorizing the Building Committee to erect Dormitories for the accommodation of the Students be rescinded.

Resolved, That the Building Committee be directed to have eight or more rooms prepared, in the Steward's house about to be built, for the accommodations of Students as rooms for lodging and study. . . .

Resolved, That the rooms to be prepared in the Steward's house for the accommodation of the Students be subject to the rent of two dollars per session, on each room. . . .


Hanover December 10th 1831 - . . .(26)

Resolved, That a memorial to the Legislature of this State, praying for an enlargement of the Charter of the Academy, be prepared and signed by the President and Clerk of the Board and forwarded to Indianapolis. . . .(27)


South Hanover(28)

Jan. 21st 1832. . . .

Resolved, That the course of studies to be pursued in Hanover Academy as adopted by this Board on the 25th of November 1830, be rescinded and in lieu thereof the course of Miami University(29)

be adopted verbatim. . . .


South Hanover May 8th 1832. . . .(30)

The Committee appointed to petition the Legislature for an enlargement of the Charter of the Academy, reported that they had attended to the duty assigned them, and had succeeded so far as to obtain the removal of the restriction as to the amount of land, but had failed of securing the power of conferring degrees. . . .(31)

Resolved, That the Building Committee be authorized and instructed to procure the erection of a Seminary Building, of Brick, eighty feet by forty, four stories high, to be so far completed as to afford the necessary rooms for the accommodation of students on the 1st day of November 1832. . . .

Mr. Crow tendered his resignation of the office of Principle of Hanover Academy, which was accepted.

Resolved, That Rev. James Blythe D.D.(32)

be appointed President of Hanover Academy.

Resolved, That Rev. John F. Crow be appointed Vice President of Hanover Academy.

Resolved, That Dr. Blythe be appointed Agent for this Board, to solicit aid in money and Books for Hanover Academy and Theological Seminary.

Resolved, That the President elect, provided he should accept of the office, be allowed six hundred dollars per year, to be paid semiannually, - the Vice President, five hundred, per year, - and the assistant Teachers, two hundred dollars, each, from the funds of the Board, as a compensation for their services.

Resolved, That the Students of the Academy be required hereafter to pay their tuition Bills to the Treasurer of the Board, - and that seven dollars and fifty cents per session be required, if paid in advance, or ten dollars if not paid before the middle of the session.

Resolved, That the Treasurer be required to present a full report of the state of the funds at the next meeting.

Adjourned to meet June 2nd 1832. 9 o'clock A.M.

Concluded with prayer.

John Matthews Char.

Jas. H. Johnston Clk.


South Hanover September 24h 1832. . . .(33)

Resolved, That Dr. Blythe, the President of the academy, be appointed Professor of Moral Science, Chemistry, and Natural Philosophy, - and Mr. Crow, the vice President, Professor of Logic, Belles Letteres, History etc. . . .


South Hanover, November 27th 1832. . . .(34)

Resolved, That the Legislature be requested merely to amend the present charter, by giving to the Institution the name of a "College," instead of an "Academy," and by granting the power to confer literary degrees.(35)

The Committee appointed to prepare Bye-Laws for the regulation of the proceedings of the Board, reported the following which were adopted; viz.

Art. 1. There shall be two stated meetings of the Board, in each year, one in the Spring, and one in the Fall, on the Tuesdays immediately before the close of the sessions respectively.

Art. 2. There shall be an Executive committee appointed at each stated meeting of the Board, who shall have power to appoint agents, to manage the funds of the Board, to make contracts for Buildings etc., to appoint Teachers pro tempore, and do such other business as may be necessary for the prosperity of the Institution. They shall keep a record of their proceedings, and submit the same to each stated meeting of the Board, for their approbation or disapprobation.

Art. 3. When any business shall demand the attention of the Board, before the time to which it stands adjourned, the President, or any two members of the Board, may call a meeting, by specifying the particular business to be transacted, which notice must be given by depositing a letter in the post office, to each member of the Board, not otherwise as early informed, at least fourteen days previous to the intended meeting; and at said meeting, thus called, no business shall be transacted but such as shall have been specified in the notice given.

Art. 4. At any regular meeting, if the President be absent, the Board shall choose a chairman and proceed to business.

Art. 5. When any Professor or Tutor, having received a permanent appointment, shall wish to resign his office, he shall be required to give three months notice of his intention to the Executive Committee, and it shall be the duty of the committee to give information of it to the other members of the Board. And the Board shall have power to dismiss any Professor or Tutor, by giving him three months notice. And every Professor or Tutor, upon entering on the duties of his office, shall signify his assent to the provisions of this article.

Art. 6. No alterations, or amendments shall be made to these Bye-Laws, unless by a concurrence of two thirds of the members present, at a stated meeting of the Board.

At the suggestion of the Faculty some slight alterations, additions and amendments were made to the Laws of the Academy, adopted at a former meeting, and the same were committed to Mr. Johnston for publication.

Resolved, That 500 copies of said System of Laws be published and the expense be paid from the funds of the Board. . . .

Resolved, That the Inauguration of the President and Professors of the Institution take place, at South Hanover, on the 1st day of Jan. 1833. . . .


South Hanover Jan. 1st 1833.(36)

The Trustees of Hanover Academy, met agreeably to adjournment.

The meeting was opened with prayer.

Present, J.M. Dickey, J. Matthews, J.F. Crow, J.H. Johnston, G. Logan, V. King and S. Smock.

The arrangements for the Inauguration adopted by the Executive Committee were approved and in accordance with the same, the Trustees attended upon the ceremonies of that occasion.

After prayer by the President of the Board, and public addresses from Dr. Blythe, President of the Academy, Mr. Niles, Prof. of Languages, and Mr. Harney, Prof. of Mathematics, these Gentlemen, together with Mr. Crow, Professor of Belles Lettres etc. severally assented, in public, to the following formula, viz:

"In the presence of God, and the Trustees of this Institution, I do solemnly, examine, promise obedience to the laws and regulations already adopted, or that may hereafter be adopted by the Board for the government of the Institution, while I may continue connected with it. And I further pledge myself faithfully to discharge, to the best of my abilities, the duties of my office as professor; as well as to promote by all proper means the general interests of the Institution." The Laws, the Key etc. were delivered the President of the Academy by the President of the Bd.

The exercises were then closed with prayer by the Professor of Theology, in the Theological Seminary. . . .

End Notes

1. a Two secondary sources were used for the introduction and the annotations throughout the Minutes. They are: William Alfred Millis, The History of Hanover College from 1827 to 1927 (Greenfield, Ind.: W.M.. Mitchell Printing, 1927; and A.Y. Moore, History of Hanover College (Indianapolis: Hollenbeck Press, 1900).

2. The Sand Creek Church was in present-day Kingston, Ind., in Decatur County. pp. 3-5 of "Records."

3. Plural form of the title "Mr."

4. pp. 6-8.

5. Located in Jennings County. p. 9.

6. pp. 10-16.

7. Of the provisions of the Academy's charter, Millis commented, "It is interesting to note that this charter was granted in response to a petition of the presbytery and that it was drafted by the committee to express the will of that body. The gentlemen named in the act were members of the presbytery, and by the original 'plan of organization' already trustees of the school. It was the judgment of these men that was expressed in the provisions that the Board of Trustees should be a close corporation, electing their own successors without the supervision of Presbytery or Synod, and having permission to increase their number when in their judgment this might seem desirable. Thus Hanover Academy is the creation of Madison Presbytery but incorporated free from ecclesiastical control; Presbyterian in fact, but legally independent. Subsequent charters have preserved the principle of this relationship."

8. In August of 1819, John M. Dickey became the first installed Presbyterian minister in the state of Indiana. Upon the death in 1821 of Thomas C. Searle, Hanover Presbyterian Church's first pastor, Dickey occasionally preached at the church and moderated its session. As moderator in 1823, he issued the call to John Finley Crowe to become the church's next pastor.

9. Also called the "Manual Labor System." The minutes from the meeting on October 1, 1829 explain the system as it was incorporated into the Academy.

10. pp. 20-24.

11. The manual labor system was a plan of organization for the Academy that was developed in the Fellenberg-Pestalozzi schools of Germany, and employed in the Oneida Institute of New York. Implemented as a means for students to support themselves, the system was an experiment at the Academy for combining liberal and trade education. It only lasted until 1839, when it was abandoned because of its financial liability.

12. The Synod of Indiana included the presbyteries from Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. pp. 25-30.

13. The October 16 meeting, only the fourth in the synod's history, was held in present-day Bond County, Illinois, 40 to 45 miles east of St. Louis. Members of the Madison Presbytery who went to the meeting were Dickey, Crowe, Lowry, Gregg, Johnston, and Smock. The journey to western Illinois took eight days by horseback As they traveled, they were joined by members of other presbyteries who were also going to the Shoal Creek meeting.

14. The idea for a theological seminary in the West was first proposed at the first meeting of the Synod of Indiana in October of 1826. Moore stated that the primary reason the Synod gave for wanting to establish a western seminary was "to supplement the work of Princeton Seminary in providing ministers for the rapidly growing West."

15. pp. 31-32.

16. Matthews received the call from the Academy's new Theological Department soon after this meeting. He was at first hesitant to leave his church in Virginia and was urged by his friends not to accept the call. He went to New York and Philadelphia early in 1830 to solicit funds for a salary of an additional Professor for the Department. He succeeded in his campaign and, seeing it as an act of Providence supporting Christian work in the West, agreed to remove to Hanover. He arrived in May of 1830.

17. p. 46.

18. p. 48.

19. pp. 51-52.

20. pp. 60-65.

21. The Theological Seminary operated alongside the Hanover Academy for ten years. It became an independent institution upon a contract between the Synod and the Trustees but remained affiliated with the Academy under the name of the Indiana Theological Seminary. In 1840, the Seminary's board of directors decided to remove it to New Albany, Indiana. It was moved again in 1857 to Chicago and called McCormick Theological Seminary.

22. Interestingly, many of the individuals involved in securing this Compact shared responsibilities between both the Synod and the Academy. John Matthews, Professor of Theology of the Academy and a Trustee was also Moderator of the Synod. John M. Dickey represented the Synod in formulating the contract but signed it as "President of Trustees of Hanover Academy." James H. Johnston signed it as Stated Clerk of Synod and as Secretary of the Trustees. All three men were Trustees of the Academy, the ministerial party of Presbytery, and the majority party of Synod.

23. pp. 65-67.

24. pp. 77-80, 82.

25. pp. 83, 84.

26. p. 92.

27. The Board petitioned the Legislature for this enlarged charter to make the Academy a standard liberal arts college with the power to confer degrees. See n. 30.

28. In 1819, the Rev. Thomas C. Searle accepted a call to become pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Madison, Indiana. On March 4, 1820, Searle organized a new congregation on a plot of land owned by Judge Williamson Dunn and built a stone meeting house. He named the new church the Hanover Church after Hanover, New Hampshire, the birthplace of his wife and the seat of his alma mater, Dartmouth College. The nearby Academy adopted the name of the church after it was established in 1828. A new village emerged around the school and church soon after. When a post office came to the village in 1830, it was called South Hanover in order to distinguish it from a post office in Shelby County, Indiana, called Hanover. This latter post office eventually became extinct, and the village in Jefferson County became Hanover. Thus, in order, the name "Hanover" was taken first by the church, then the school, and finally the town. p. 95.

29. For a complete list of the Miami University curriculum as it was adopted, see Millis, pp 158-59. See also n. 30.

30. pp. 101-102, 104, 106-107.

31. The petition of the Board of Trustees for an enlargement of the Academy's charter was acted on favorably by the State Legislature's Committee on Education. However, the President of the Board of Trustees of Indiana College, now Indiana University, reversed the committee's decision with the argument that the state's population would never sustain more than one college. He contended that, by granting a college charter to Hanover, his college's rights in equity would be transgressed. John Finley Crowe wrote a letter to the chairman of the committee to counteract the petition of Indiana College. His letter did not successfully secure favorable action before the close of the session, but by the next session the charter was granted. Although neither Millis nor Moore allude to it, it is probable that Hanover's Board of Trustees adopted the Miami University curriculum to show the State Legislature that the Academy was ready for college status. Crowe, in his "Succinct History of Hanover College," stated, "The Board at their meeting September 24, 1832, having resolved to give the Academy the grade of College, passed the following resolution [to adopt the Miami University curriculum]."

32. Blythe came from Lexington, Kentucky, where he had been a professor of chemistry at Transylvania University and later its president. John Finley Crowe, who had been an undergraduate at Transylvania and a member of Blythe's congregation, nominated him for the presidency of Hanover Academy.

33. pp. 118-119.

34. pp. 125-128, 129.

35. The Trustees made this resolution after the State Legislature granted the enlarged charter. The "Act to amend the Act entitled 'an Act to incorporate Hanover Academy'" was read and approved in a meeting on January 10, 1833.

36. pp. 130-131.

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