History 111
Foundations of the Modern Age
Fall Semester 1996

First Exam
Study Questions

(final form 9-27-96)

1. Compare Protestant and Catholic theology in the sixteenth-century, giving consideration to the similarities and differences in their assumptions about human nature, salvation, and the Church. You should draw upon the texts of Luther, Calvin, and the Council of Trent.

2. Compare the political theories of Hobbes, and Locke. You should include a consideration of their views of the "state of nature," the social contract, the form of government, and the rights, liberties, and obligations of subjects.

3. Explain the "new science" and "new scientific method" of the seventeenth-century, comparing the new science with the old and drawing upon the texts of Bacon and Descartes.

4. Synthesize the major patterns of European imperialism between 1400 and 1800, giving consideration to (1) how and why Europe expanded and (2) the impact that Europe had on the other civilizations of the world.

5. Explain the origins and development of capitalism in Europe between 1400 and 1800. What is capitalism and how does it differ from other economic systems? Why did a capitalist economy emerge in Europe in much greater measure than in other civilizations? What were the obstacles that capitalism faced in Europe? Your answers should draw upon the text of Thomas Mun.

6. Drawing upon the works of Voltaire, Hume, and Smith, explain the beliefs, ideals, and objectives of the philosophes.
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