A Guide to the
Elias Riggs Monfort
Below is an alphabetical listing of information about people,
events, terms, etc. found in the Elias Riggs Monfort
images and transcriptions
of letters in the collection are available.
Students from GW143/144 "Autobiography: History" (Fall 2013, Winter
2014, and Fall 2014), all taught by Sarah
McNair Vosmeier, contributed to this document.
Absalom Baird was a Union general in the Civil War. He lived from 1824 to
1905. When this
letter was written, Baird was 39 years old. On April 28th, 1862, he
was named brigadier general USV. Baird commanded the 27th Brigade of the
Cumberland Division in Ohio. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1896 for
his work in Jonesboro.
Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary
(New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 38-39.
-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC
President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863,
freeing slaves in the states that were then still in rebellion. Many
northerners objected. For instance, Lincoln's party did poorly in the
1862 elections, once voters learned of his plans, and the stock market also
declined on news of the proclamation.
Source: Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (New
York: Da Capo Press, 1982), 103-5.
This South Carolina fort is famous as the location of the heroic charge by
the African-American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (on July
18, 1863). In making the assault under heavy fire, the soldiers of the
54th proved that African Americans could serve "as gallantly as any troops
could," as one reporter put it. Almost half of the men making the charge
were killed, including their white commanding officer, Robert Gould
Shaw. The famous Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, by Augustus
Saint-Gaudens, commemorates the event, as does the movie Glory
Sources: "Exhibit 54th Mass Casualty List," American Originals,
National Archives and Records Administration, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/54thmass.html
(accessed 20 Nov. 2014); "Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment," Boston
African-American National Historic Site, http://www.nps.gov/boaf/historyculture/shaw.htm
(accessed 20 Nov. 2014).
Margaret Monfort attended Glendale Female College, where her father was
principal. This college was in Glendale, Ohio. It has been called the
American Female College. Then the name was changed to Glendale Female
College after her father, Rev. Joseph G. Monfort, and others took over the
management. This college was more on the lines of a finishing school, as a
private boarding school and a public school during day. This was one of the
four institutions for women and had four divisions of studies. At the
college, the girls were highly supervised by adults. Religion was important;
everyone walked to church together on Sundays. This college began having
difficulty with better private schools and coeducational colleges. In the
1920s, it closed because of the competition and the financial burden. The
new building that was built in the building`s place gave housing to the
residents of the town.
Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort," Hanover
Jefferson County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; Mary Lynn Bryan
and Barbara Bair, The Selected Papers of Jane Addams: vol. 1: Preparing
to Lead, 1860-81. (University of Illinois Press 2003), 190-191.
-- Ashley Templeman, HC
Robert Granger was a Union general in the Civil War. He lived from 1816 to
1894. During the time this
letter was written, he was 47 years old. On September 9th, 1861, he
was promoted to major in the 5th Infantry. He commanded the post of
Louisville and later took over Kentucky troops in late September of 1861.
From January 29 to March of 1863, Granger lead the 1st Division XIV in
Army of the Cumberland.
Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary
(New York: David McKay Company, 1959), p. 352.
-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC
Elias Riggs Monfort and Andrew L. Harris were both officers in the 75th Ohio
Volunteer Infantry (OVI).
Source: Joseph B. Foraker, James S. Robinson, and H. A. Axline,
Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the
Rebellion, 1861-1866, Volume 6 (1886), 235.
-- Drew Shafer, HC
Oliver Otis Howard was born on November 8, 1830, in Leeds, Maine. His
father's name was Rowland Baily Howard, and his mother's name was Eliza Otis
Howard. He was a Union general in the Civil War. In 1854, Howard graduated
from West Point, and he ranked 4th out of 46 students. He married Elizabeth
Ann Waite on February 14th, 1855, and they would have seven children
together. In the late 1850s, Howard was serving in Florida, and he converted
to evangelical Christianity. He became so interested in that religion that
he gave serious thought to becoming a priest. He was an instructor of
mathematics at West Point in September 1857. He fought in many battles and
gained many promotions. In the Battle of Fair Oaks, Howard was wounded, and
the injury required him to have his right arm amputated above the elbow. He
also fought in the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which is the
battle that Sam Ruckman was accused of running away from.
Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia of the
American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa
Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), II: 1008-1010.
-- Zach Barnes, HC
Joseph "Trygood" Hurt was born in Ohio and lived in Ohio most of his life,
not including his time served Company F of the Ohio Infantry's 75th
Regiment. Hurt served his entire Civil War tenure as a private. Also known
as Trygood and Hirt, he was approximately twenty-eight years old in
1862. According to the 1860 census, Hurt was married to Maria Hurt and
had one child, Martha A. Hurt, while sharing a home with William. C.
Whitacre and Tevitha Whitacre, both young children at the time. Hurt and his
family lived in Salem, Warren County, Ohio.
Sources: "U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865," s.v. Trygood Hurt,
ancestry.com, http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November
2013); 1860 United States Census, s.v. Joseph Hurt,"
http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ (accessed 22 November 2013).
-- Cody Reister, HC
Abram Miller was a Union officer in the Civil War. He was born in Ohio. On
April 5th, 1862, he became the Lt. Colonel in the 10th Indiana Regiment. On
August 24th, 1862, he became the Colonel of the 72nd Indiana Regiment.
Source: Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary
(New York: David McKay Company, 1959), pp. 550-551.
-- Cheyann Fletcher, HC
Elias Riggs Monfort was born in Greensburg, Indiana, on March 2, 1842.
His father, J. G. Monfort, was forty-six years old in 1860. His mother,
Hannah (Riggs) Monfort, was forty-four years old in 1860. Elias Riggs
Monfort had two younger siblings, Francis, sixteen years old, and
Margaret, fourteen years old; they were both in school in 1860. Elias
Riggs Monfort also had an uncle whose name was Elias, and he served for
sixty years as a Christian missionary in Turkey. The Monfort family moved
to Cincinnati in 1855 because J. G. Monfort became president of the
Glendale Female College. E. R. Monfort took in early education in
Cincinnati and Glendale, and he entered Hanover College in 1859. In the
year the Civil War began, in June 18, 1861, he joined Company A, 6th Ohio
volunteer infantry. Later, in January 12, 1863, he was promoted to Captain
of the 75th Ohio infantry. He got injured in some battles, including the
battle of Gettysburg in 1863. He became disabled and unable to fight, so
he went back to his home and Hanover College in 1864 and graduated there
the next year. He graduated from a Cincinnati law school in 1867 and
started working at the Ohio Court. He married Emma Taylor and had three
Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Elias R. Monfort," Springfield,
Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; Memoirs of the Lower
Ohio Valley: Personal and Genealogical vol.1 (Federal Publishing
Company, 1905), 24-26, (accessed through http://books.google.com,
4 Nov. 2014).
-- Asumi Oba, HC
Elias Riggs Monfort was born March 2, 1842, in Greensburg, Indiana. His
father's name was Joseph Glass Monfort and his mother was Hannah Monfort.
He also mentions having an uncle named Frank in his letter. On October
8th, 1861, he enlisted into the Union Army at the age of 20. He was ranked
2nd Lieutenant at time of enlistment. Later, he was commissioned an
officer in Company F, Ohio 75th Infantry Regiment on December 14th, 1861.
He was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on May 15th, 1862. Elias was then
promoted to Captain on January 14th, 1863. He was then
decommissioned on December 9th, 1863 after he was injured from a gunshot
to the hip. He was married to Emma T. Monfort and had three children;
Joseph, Hannah, and Margaret. They lived in Hamilton County (Cincinnati)
Ohio. Elias was an editor of newspaper, and Emma was a stay-at-home
mother. Their neighbors were the Swansons and the Reeders. Elias
Riggs Monfort died July 29th, 1920, in Oaks Corner, New York. He was
buried back in Hamilton County, Ohio, in the Spring Grove Cemetery.
Sources: 1880 United States Federal Census, s.v "Elias Riggs
Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through
Elias Riggs Monfort" www.findagrave.com.
-- Kevin Christie, HC
Elias R. Monfort's home was in Springfield, Hamilton county, Ohio, around
the time he was 18 years old. (Monfort was born about 1842 in Indiana.)
There were twelve people living in his household around the time that the
Civil War began. His mother and father were Hannah Monfort and J.G.
Monfort; his father was the president of Glendale Female College. Elias
had a sister named Margaret Monfort. There were six servants living in the
house, and they were probably servants of the college; also there was
another woman, possibly another family member, named Isabelle Ferry. Elias
went to war when he was about 19 or 20.
Source: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Elias
Monfort," Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com
-- Brittany Slaughter, HC
Elias R. Monfort was born in 1842 in Greensburg, Indiana, but during and
after the Civil War he lived in Cincinnati, Ohio, in Hamilton County. His
father was born in Ohio, and his mother was born in New Jersey. He
enlisted in the Army on October 8, 1861, when he was 20, as a second
lieutenant. He was wounded while in the war but survived. He married Emma
T. Monfort. He died in Oaks Corner, New York, about 1920.
Sources: 1880 United States Census, s.v. "Elias R. Monfort,"
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; "U.S.
Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865," s.v. "Elias R.
Monfort," accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Eddy Wagner, HC
Elias Monfort's father was a principal at the Glendale Female College and
had a total worth of 10,000 in 1860. The household included six servants, as
well as a female two years older than he, named Isabelle Ferry. Five of the
servants were born in Ireland, and the other one came from Prussia. The
servant from Prussia was the only male; the remaining servants were between
the ages of 26 and 32 in 1860. By 1880, Monfort's household included
his wife, Emma T. Monfort, and three children (Joseph, Hannah, and
Margaret), along with two servants. Monfort worked as an editor in 1880 and
was a postmaster for the post office in 1910.
Sources: 1860 United States Census, Springfield, Hamilton, Ohio,
accessed through ancestry.com; 1880 United States Census, Cincinnati,
Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census,
Cincinnati Ward 3, Hamilton, Ohio, accessed through ancestry.com.
-- Drew Stutz, HC
E.R. was twenty years old when he entered the war on
October 8, 1861. He served Ohio during the war, and his rank when he
enlisted was second lieutenant. He was wounded but survived. He was
commissioned as an officer in Company F in the 75th Infantry Regiment in
Ohio on December 14, 1861. He was promoted to Captain on January 14,
Source: "1861-1865 U.S. Civil War Soldier
Records and Profiles," Ancestry.com (library edition), s.v. "Elias Riggs
Monfort," accessed 22 November 2013.
Diane Jackson, HC
In Elias Riggs Montfort's letter to his sister on the 8th of October 1863,
he mentions that he received a letter from Frank, who says he is studying
hard since he left Hanover. Although little information is given about
Frank, it still allows for a starting point in the investigation of his
life. Knowing that he attended Hanover sometime before 1863, I found from
the Hanover archives that his full name is actually Francis C. Montfort. He
began his freshman year here in June 1860, joining his brother, Elias, who
was already in his sophomore year; so there was about a year between them.
Frank continued his studies at Hanover until 1862, his junior year. However,
surprisingly, his brother's name did not appear in this year, which was
supposed to be his senior year. It seemed unusual that he would
suddenly drop out when he had one year left to complete school. After
searching through Hanover's history, I found that in the year 1862 to 1864
Hanover's "enrollment dropped and many students withdrew to enter armies,"
so an understanding of why he drops out becomes apparent. The fact that
Frank continued on with his studies gives a sense of his character. A
clearer image of his character then comes from the 1920 census, showing that
he became a minister, which suggests that he believed that violence was not
Elias Riggs Monfort to Margaret C. Monfort, October
8, 1862; Annual Catalogue and Circular of Hanover College (Madison,
Indiana: Wm. P. Levy & Co's Printing and Binding Establishment, 1860)
6; "Hanover College History" (http://library.hanover.edu/archives/hchistory.php
1920 United States Federal Census, s.v "Francis C. Monfort," Cincinnati,
Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Carlton Mhangami, HC
Elias Riggs Monfort later married Emma Taylor, and their first child was
Joseph T. Monfort. Joseph was born in Indiana in about 1870. He did receive
schooling while he lived in the Hamilton County, Ohio, region. He was an
older brother to Hannah and Margaret Monfort. Joseph would grow up and be
married between 1900 and 1910. He would have two children with his wife,
Anna S. Monfort. His sons names were Elias Riggs Monfort, Jr., and Joseph S.
Sources: 1880 United States Census, s.v. "Elias Riggs Monfort,"
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1900
United States Census, s.v. "Jos T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County,
Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1910 United States Census, s.v. "Jos
T. Monfort," Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Layne Taylor, HC
The 1860 census shows that Maggie Monfort was an educated woman because
she attended school that year. Her father was principal at the Glendale
Female College, which he stated on the census. The school is also
mentioned in the History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio;
Their Past and Present. This implies that Maggie was attending
that college during the war.
Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort,"
Springfield, Hamilton County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; History
of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio; Their Past and Present
(Cincinnati, OH: S.B. Nelson & CO., Publishers, 1894), 443.
-- Michele Navarrete, HC
Margaret Monfort was born in 1846 in Indiana and was the youngest of four
children of a wealthy family. Elias was the oldest, being four years
older. In 1860, her family was living in Springfield, Ohio, and they had
six servants: five from Ireland and one from Prussia
Source: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Margaret Monfort,"
Springfield, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Diane Jackson, HC
Newburg was too small to appear on a map showing the whole country, which
makes sense, as Monfort describes it as only having "10 or fifteen
inhabitants." But from Monfort's letter we know that it was about thirteen
miles away from Newport and lay along the Baltimore West Union Railroad.
Newburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Sources: George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley, Atlas
to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ed.
Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S. Lamont, compiled Calvin
D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135, 140, 171.
-- Brianna White, HC
Parkersburg lies on the Ohio River approximately seventy-five miles
southwest of Marietta. Although Monfort does not go into detail about it,
the town was large enough to merit recording on a map from the era showing
the full country. In this border town between Ohio and Virginia, the
Cincinnati Hillsborough Railroad turned into the Baltimore West Union
Railroad, also known regionally as the B. & O. Railroad. The railroad's
path went East along the northern border of what is now West Virginia, just
south of Maryland, through Union, then Clarksburg, before arriving in
Grafton, which lay on the Monogahela River.
Parkersburg, Virginia [West Virginia]
Sources: George B. Davis, Leslie J. Perry, and Joseph W. Kirkley,
Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate
Armies, ed. Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, and Daniel S.
Lamont, compiled Calvin D. Cowles (Hong Kong: Fairfax Press, 1983), 135,
-- Brianna White, HC
The town of Parkersburg is now in the state of West
Virginia, but that area had been Virginia before the state split off
during the Civil War. -- smv
John Pope was a collateral descendant of George Washington, and his uncle
was an United State Senator from Kentucky. After four years, he won brevets
of lieutenant and captain for gallantry in the Mexican War. Pope went from
lieutenant to captain to brigadier general to major general. He even
commanded former superiors.
Pope blamed other people for his mistakes. He allowed R. E. Lee to divide
and put back together the two wings under Jackson and Longstreet.
McClellan took over after that and forced Pope to take a back seat. Pope's
order reflected poorly on his command, and people disliked him.
Source: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Blue: Lives of the
Union Commanders (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State
University Press, 1964), pp. 376-377.
-- Daijon Johnson, HC
E. R. Monfort served in the Union Army under General Joseph Jones Reynolds.
General Reynolds was born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky, in 1822. His family
moved to Lafayette, Indiana, when Reynolds was fifteen. In 1839, Reynolds
joined the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in 1843. After that, he served
many military positions and briefly taught at several universities,
including West Point and Washington University. At the start of the Civil
War, he was living in Indiana once again. Due to his vast military
experience, he was appointed colonel of the 10th Regiment of Indiana, and
was promoted to general in 1861. He served with the 10th Regiment until
1862, when he resigned to attend business affairs.
Reynolds, Gen. Joseph Jones
1861, Monfort refers to a "camp of 21 thousand rebbles [sic] under
Genl. Lee" and expresses concern that a battle will soon start. General
Robert E Lee's forces did indeed attack Monfort's brigade under General
Reynolds on September 11, 1861 -- less than a month after the letter was
written. However, General Reynold's forces were able to successfully keep
control of the area for the rest of the year.
Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, ed., Encyclopedia
of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History
(Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), IV: 1633.
-- Jennifer GIlly, HC 2018
Rosecrans was a well-respected general in the Civil War. He was under the
command of Indiana native William Henry Harrison before he became a general
himself. Rosecrans received the nickname "Old Rosy" while he was a student
at West Point Academy. With much experience from the Mexican War, Major
General George B. McClellan appointed Rosecrans General of the 23rd Ohio
Infantry as soon as the Civil War began. On September 19, 1862, Confederate
General Earl Van Dorn attacked Rosecrans in Corinth. These two officers had
much hate towards each other after the Battle of Luka. In 1868, President
Andrew Johnson appointed Rosecrans to be the minister to Mexico. William
Rosecrans passed away on March 11, 1898, and his remains are in Arlington
|Rosecrans, William Starke
Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds., "William
Starke Rosecrans." Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political,
Social, and Military History, 1677-1678. Vol. 4 (Santa Barbara,
-- Reilly Reingold, HC
Elias Riggs Montfort wrote
about the Shenandoah Valley while on the march during the Peninsular
Campaign in the American Civil War. His regiment was part of the army
originally intended to reinforce the Union positions outside of Richmond,
Virginia. The infamous Confederate General, "Stonewall" Jackson, led his
army to prevent the reinforcements from reaching their intended
destinations. Jackson was defeated the Union at Winchester and was then
pursued by General Banks. Jackson repelled General Bank's army at Front
Royal and then won another battle at Winchester. Jackson then defeated
General Fremont's and General Shield's armies and threatened to attack
Washington. Jackson turned back near the end of May, which caused the Union
troops, including those of Elias Riggs Montfort's regiment, to pursue
Jackson into the Shenandoah Valley.
Sources: "From the Shenandoah Valley," New York Times, 14
June 1862. http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); "Operations in the Virginia Valley," New
York Times, 1 May 1862. http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); R.C. Shriber, "The Battle of Winchester," New
York Times, 31 March 1862, http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); Snyder, "Important from Virginia," New
York Times, 24 August 1862, http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); "Three Days Later from Europe," New
York Times, 17 June 1862, http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); "The Repulse at Fort Royal," New York
Times, 25 May 1862, http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013); C. H. W., "From the Shenandoah Valley," New
York Times, 14 June 1862, http://www.nytimes.com
(accessed November 24, 2013).
-- Mason Cheng, HC
Philip Henry Sheridan was a Union general during the Civil War. After
graduating, he spent eight years on the frontier; he was promoted in 1861.
He also served as a quartermaster, as colonel in the 2nd Michigan Calvary,
as brigadier general, and finally as major general. During the Battle of
Chattanooga, Sheridan overtook the Confederates in a position they had
considered "impregnable," which turned U.S. Grant's attention toward
Sheridan, assigning him the position of overseeing the entire cavalry of
the Army of the Potomac. This brought General Sheridan into "world
Source: Ezra J. Warner, "Philip Henry Sheridan," Generals
in Blue (Louisiana State University Press, 1964), 437-438.
-- Darien Miller, HC
William Strickland was 62 years old at the time of the 1850 census. He was
born in Pennsylvania and lived in Tennessee at the time. Three others
lived with him at the time: Rachel Strickland, Elizabeth Strickland, and
F. W. Strickland. Rachel was 52 and was his wife, whom he married on
November 3, 1812, when he was around 24. F W and Elizabeth were 20 and 23
respectively and probably were his children. He was known mostly for his
architecture work but also painted and sculpted. In 1818 Strickland won a
competition to design the Second Bank of the U.S. This building was
constructed in 1824, with a mixture of designs from Georgian and Greek
Revival. He also proposed an idea for a new room for the House of
Representatives around 1844. Strickland died when he was 66, in 1854.
Sources: 1850 United States Census, s.v. "Wm Strickland,"
Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, accessed through Ancestry.com;
Addison Gilchrist, William Strickland: Architect and Engineer-
1788-1854 (Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 1950)
-- Brandi Buchanan, HC 2018
Emma Taylor had eight people living in her house in 1860. She was
nineteen years old at the time of the census, so that would make her 22
when she was writing to her brother, Gordon, during the war. Before the
war, Gordon was a bank clerk in 1860. The Taylor family lived in
Millcreek, Hamilton county, Ohio in 1860.
Source: 1860 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma Taylor,"
Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through
-- Andrew Howard, HC
Emma J. Monfort married Elias Riggs Monfort in 1867. She was born May
1842 in Ohio. Her father's birthplace was in New Hampshire, and her
mother's birthplace was in New Jersey. Emma and Elias were the born in the
Source: 1900 United States Federal Census, s.v. "Emma J. Monfort,"
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Trey Sparks, HC
Joseph Gordon Taylor was born in about 1839 to Eli and Hannah Taylor, who
were living in the state of Ohio. In 1860 (before the outbreak of the
Civil War), Joseph was 21 years old. He worked as a bank teller and lived
with eight family members in Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio. After his
involvement in the war, Joseph lived in Washington, Decatur County,
Indiana, and had a listed estate value of $30,000 in 1870. Oddly, the 1860
Census incorrectly lists Joseph as "Gorden Taylor," whereas the 1870
census lists him as "J G Taylor."
Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Gorden Taylor,"
Millcreek, Hamilton County, Ohio, accessed through Ancestry.com;
1870 United States Census, s.v. "J G Taylor," Washington, Decatur County,
Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com.
-- Josh Ford, HC
Vallandigham, Clement Laird
Mentioned by Joseph Gordon Taylor in his June 17, 1863, letter
to Emma Taylor and in one
from October 21, 1863, Clement Laird Vallandigham acted as the functional
leader of the Copperheads. Taylor described him as leading a "peace party"
and regarded that role as traitorous. Vallandigham was a pacifist, making
it clear as to why a soldier such as Taylor resented him. A congressman in
the antebellum period, he strongly opposed Lincoln's presidency. Due to
his opposition to Lincoln, Vallandigham was annihilated in his attempt to
get reelected in 1862. Disliked and distrusted by the Union and the
Confederacy alike, he eventually relocated to Canada in 1863. Vallandigham
returned to the United States after the war, wisely choosing to forgo his
life in politics. He instead opted to return to his old work as a lawyer.
Sources: Stewart Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Civil War
(New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988), 670.
-- Josh Ford, HC 2018
Hanover Historical Texts Project
Hanover College Department of History