Adkinson Letters

Notes


Notes for transcribed letters in the Adkinson Family Civil War Letters Collection (from Joseph, Samuel, Irvin, and others).

Also see the finding aid for more information.

 

Joseph Adkinson, letter to Effie Adkinson, 15 Oct. 1862, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 12:13, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Joseph Adkinson died on June 8, 1864, due to gunshot wounds. He died at Point Lookout, Maryland.

Source: Alexander H. Conner, Indiana Report of the Adjutant General (Indianapolis: State Printer, 1868), vol. 13, p. 202.

Notes and transcription by Katie Gahimer, HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to Mary Adkinson, 22 October 1862, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 1:12:14, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Mary Adkinson, a.k.a. Molly, was the youngest of twelve children from Samuel Adkinson. Accordingly, she was Joseph Adkinson's youngest sister. Born in 1851, she was roughly eleven years old when this letter was written. Out of the Adkinson children, she lived with her parents the least amount of time. She moved away and did not return home until after Samuel's death when she returned to take care of her mother, Jane, until Jane's death in 1896. Mary Adkinson married W. Scott Danner on July 8, 1883. They had four children: Maude E., Roy S., Ella J., and Mary E. Her death is unknown.

Source: Ruth Adkinson, "Family Group Sheet", 20 January 1994, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Fd 1, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

Notes and transcription by Brandon Doub, HC 2013.


Joseph Adkinson, letter to Irvin, 10 Feb. 1863, Adkinson Collection, 11:1, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
In 1863 at the time that Joseph was writing home, Fogelman was twenty-five years old. He had a wife, Malinda who was twenty-four. He also had a daughter named Ida who was three. Fogelman was a farmer in Switzerland County. He was an unassigned recruit that was discharged for a disability.

Sources: Heritage Quest Online.com; Alexander H. Conner, Indiana Report of the Adjunct General of the State of Indiana, Volume VIII.: 1861-1865 (Indianapolis: State Printer, 1868), 211.

Notes and transcription by Erin Torline HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to family, 5 March 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 12:2, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Joseph Adkinson was in the 3rd Indiana Cavalry. The 3rd Indiana cavalry consisted of twelve companies completing three years of service. There were originally fifty commissioned officers and 1,008 enlisted men. There was a total of 1,169 officers and men accounted for and 319 non-commissioned officers, band and enlisted men unaccounted for. A total of 133 people died. In all, 1,448 people belonged to the regiment.

Source: W. H. H. Terrell, Indiana in the War of Rebellion (Indianapolis: Douglass & Conner, 1869), 34.

Notes and transcription by Emily Fehr, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to Irvin Adkinson, 16 March 1863 Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Fd. 12:3, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.)
Levi A. Sedam at age 22, enlisted in the Union Army on March 10th, 1863, exactly one year after his friend Joseph Adkinson. He served alongside Adkinson in the Indiana 3rd Calvary. Sedam was a Switzerland County native that served two and a half years in the Civil War, fighting in twenty two battles. Unlike Adkinson, Sedam returned to Switzerland County alive. He married Mary E. Keeney in 1869 and the two had a daughter. Until his death (unable to find the date), the three lived on their farm in Switzerland County.

Sources: Indiana Report of the Adjutant General (Indianapolis: Douglass, 1866), 407; Ruth Hoggatt, "History of Switzerland County Biographies," Switzerland County Biographies, (accessed 30 Nov. 2009).

Notes and transcription by Rob Lafary, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to family, 3 April 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Library, Hanover College ( Hanover, Ind.).
Joseph McHenry Adkinson was stationed at Brooks Station. He belonged to the 3rd Calvary and was just an enlisted man. The 3rd Calvary originated in neighboring Madison.It was divided into two parts the East and the West wing. The Eastern campaign headed toward Antietam, while the Western front was involved with Chickaumaga. Also of importance is Adkinson's death at Lookout, Virginia on June 8, 1864.

Source:Alexander H. Conner, Indiana Report of the Adjutant General. (State Printer, 1868), 202.

Notes and transcription by Clint Horine, HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to family, 11 April 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.)
The bread that is mentioned in this letter was commonly known as hardtack. It was served in a three inch square and was a half inch thick. It was nutritious, but it was not always appealing. It was stored in wooden boxes and would be kept in warehouses for weeks at a time before it was eaten. This caused for much of the bread to become infected with insects and to become rock hard. It often had to be cooked with coffee, or in some other type of broth, in order for it to be edible. He also talks in his letter about eating beef. This was usually served in 16 once portions twice a week. The best food was available in camp. When soldiers were on the move, they usually were stuck with coffee and hardtack. They did take cooking implements with them in case they received some type of meat to eat. If they did not have these cooking implements, then they would use their bayonets or ramrods to prepare the food.

Sources: Dana B.Shoaf, "Hardtack." Encyclopedia of The American Civil War, Volume 2. Denver Colorado: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, 2000; .
Steven J. Ramold, "Rations, U.S.A.," ibid.

Transcription and notes by Jason Doehrman.

 

The Adkinson letters were written by three brothers, Samuel, Irvin, and Joseph during the Civil War. Many of the letters were written by the brothers to their family at home. Joseph was wounded during the war and sent several letters from Hammond Hospital in Maryland. Joseph questions the news that his regimen is receiving about the progress of the military campaign. He not does hold a positive outlook for the war and its progression despite the news that the regimen receives. Contrary to Joseph Adkinson's beliefs that the war news that he was receiving was false, they appear to be true. In April of 1861, Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina was captured by the Confederates. Richmond was also the site of a battle in May of 1862. The rumor about Pierre Beauregard's disappearance was most likely referring to his retirement due to illness in 1862 and not his fleeing for safety.

Sources: Finding Aid to the Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 1861-1994 [bulk 1861-1868], 2000 (accessed October 28, 2006); The History Place, 1996 (accessed October 28, 2006); Confederate Leaders. (accessed October 28, 2006).

Notes by Michela Jones, HC 2007.


Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to sister, 25 April 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 12:6, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind).
Captain Charles U. Patton was part of the 3rd Indiana Calvary, Company M. He was in the 2nd brigade under Colonel Smith D. Adkins. Adkins was under Colonel Judson Kirkpatrick, who was all under Sherman.

Source: James W. Kirkley, War of the Rebellion, vol 31, Official Records of the Union and Conferderate Armies, (Washington).

Transcription and notes by Morgan Rumple, HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to brother, 25 April 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 1:12, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

The Adkinson Family Civil War Letters are letters from three brothers while they served in the Civil War. Using the information provided in the finding aid, it can be inferred that the "Jo." who wrote this letter was one of the three Adkinson sons: Samuel, Irvin, or Joseph. Since the letter does not contain a clear recipient or sender, it could be sent and received to any combination of these three boys.

One of the Adkinson sons was stationed in Potomac Creek Bridge in Virginia at this time. He spent a great deal of this letter discussing his daily life and his well-being. There have been some disagreements about the effectiveness of soldier's performance. One of these theories argues that having a sense of community motivates soldiers and enables them to suppress their fear and perform well. This can be illustrated in Jo.'s letter by his mentioning of shared responsibilities with his roommate Sam Henry Rogers of taking care of cattle and horses. [Source: Mark A. Weitz, " Drill, Training, and the Combat Performance of the Civil War Soldier: Dispelling the Myth of the Poor Soldier, Great Fighter," Journal of Military History 62, no. 2 (1998): 263-289.]

Notes and transcription by Sara Shake, HC 2007.

 

Joseph M. Adkinson, letter to father, 27 April 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Fd. 12:8, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
According to the 1860 census of Pleasant Township in Switzerland County, Indiana, Irvin was 22 years old, and he was born in Indiana. I assume he was still living with his and Joseph's parents. He was not married and did not own any real estate. He was a student of Divinity, so he had some religious training, though for what purpose it does not say.

Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office, Eighth Census, 1860, Pleasant Township, Switzerland County, Indiana, s. v. "Francis Adkinson," Heritage Quest, HeritageQuestOnline.com.

Notes and transcription by Andrea Deutsch, HC 2013.

 

 

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to brother, 12 July 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Joseph Adkinson mentioned the Battle of Antietam, and this was a serious battle. The battle began on September 17, 1862. The Civil War was a bloody war and this was the bloodiest day of the war. There were 22,719 casualties combined during the Battle of Antietam. What helped this battle be so bloody was the fact that two Indiana soldiers found General Lee's plans of attack before they made their move. General McClellan knew what Lee planned to do, and so he was ready to attack. The Battle of Antietam was a huge battle during the Civil War.

Source: David S. Heidler et al., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A political, social, and Military History(Santa Barbra:ABC CLIO, 2000.)

Notes and transcription by Brian Gunter, HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to Irvin Adkinson, 18 August 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, 11:12, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
"Sam" mentioned in Joseph's letters was Samuel Adkinson, a brother to Joseph and Irvin. Samuel was born on April 20, 1834, in Indiana to a Francis Adkinson and Eliza McHenry Adkinson. In 1856, he was wed to Orinda Bafford in Switzerland County Indiana. During the war, he fought alongside Joseph. During his lifetime, he had three sons. Samuel died August 24th 1894 in Carrollton, Kentucky.

Notes and transcription by Nate Weber, HC 2013.

 

Joseph McHenry Adkinson to Irvin Adkinson, 28 October 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind).
On Oct 28th, 1863, Joseph Adkinson sent a letter to his brother Irvin. Irvin was 22 years old and was born in Pennsylvania. From the letter, it was clear that Irvin and Joseph did not talk for a long time. After doing a small research, I found out that Irvin is a student in a university.

Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office, Eighth Census, 1860, Pleasant Township, Switzerland County, Indiana, s. v. "Francis Adkinson," Heritage Quest, HeritageQuestOnline.com.

Notes and transcription by Mona Dajani, HC 2013.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to his sister Mary, 6 November [1863?], Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.)
This letter is from the Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, and is from Joseph Adkinson to his sister Mary. He is writing from the hospital, and reports that he is doing well. Joseph talks how his brother Oliver had got his picture made, and he needed to do the same. Joseph tells Mary how Levi is also a patient in the same hospital, but is not doing as well mentally. In this letter Joseph mentions other family members such as his mother, his sister Jane, Rinda, and Grandpap Hart.

Source: Ruth Adkinson, "Family Group Sheet," 20 January 1994, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Fd. 1, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

Notes and transcription by Allyson Craig, HC 2013.

Joseph M. Adkinson, letter to sister, 13 November 1863, Adkinson family Civil War Letters, fd 12:8, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Henry Rogers was a friend of Adkinson who was born in Maryland, Indiana. Before joining the military, Rogers was a farm laborer whose property had an estimated value of $300. Rogers was also married to an Electa Rogers. His date of muster appeared on March 10, 1863. He was then transfered to 3rd cavalry (45th regiment).

Source: U.S Department of the Interior, Census Office, Ninth Census, 1870, Hanover, Jefferson County, Indiana, s.v. "Henry Rogers," Heritage Quest, HeritageQuestOnline.com; Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, Volume V. 1861-1865 (Indianapolois: Samuel M. Douglas, State Printer. 1866), 407.

Notes and transcription by Clarence Cledanor, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to “all at home,” 17 Nov. 1863,  folder 11, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Effie Adkinson was born approximately in 1845.  This would make her about eighteen at the time she received this letter.   Effie was one of eight children and was the middle child in age.  She married Allen W. Smith on February 21, 1866, at the age of 21.  The young couple actually lived in Madison, Indiana, where they raised a daughter and two sons (Carrie, Rollin, and Irvin).  In 1880, their children ranged in age from 11 to 4.

Sources: 1880 United States census, s.v. “Allen Smith,” Madison, Jefferson county, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1860 United States census, s.v. “Allen Smith,” Pleasant, Switzerland County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com; 1860 United States census, s.v. “Effie Adkinson,” Pleasant, Switzerland County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com.

Note and transcription by Alexander Wiseman, HC 2016.

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to Molly Adkinson, 24 November 1863, Adkinson collection, 19:3, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
I found Samuel Adkinson (mentioned in the letter) living in Switzerland County, Indiana, in 1860. He was a 55 year old farmer whose estate was valued at $3200.00 and whose personal estate was valued at $900.00. He was married to Jane, who was 53 years old. Joseph mentions in his letter he had heard from Sam which makes me believe that Samuel Adkinson wrote Joseph. I also tied the information together that Alfred and Mary Dunning, who were neighbors to Samuel Adkinson, could possibly be the "All & Mery Ellen" mentioned in Joseph's letters. Alfred was 28 and Mery 23; they were farmers but land and estate values are not mentioned. This leads to me believe they did not own their own land, which might be why the letter says "hope All & Mery Ellen close the bargain soon." They had 2 children: Lewella (5) and Geneva (4).

Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office. Eighth Census, 1860, Hanover, Jefferson County, Indiana, s.v. "Samuel Adkinson," Heritage Quest, HeritageQuestOnline.com.

Notes and transcription by Morgan Nay, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Adkinson, letter to brother Irvin, 30 December 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, folder 11, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover Ind.).
When Joseph Adkinson refers to the 3rd, he means the 3rd Indiana Cavalry Regiment. The 3rd Cavalry was also known as the 45th Regiment. Joseph Adkinson was an unassigned recruit in the 3rd Cavalry. He died in the 3rd Cavalry due to wounds at Lookout Point, Virginia, June 8, 1864.

Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, vol. VIII, 1861-1865 (Indianapolis: Alexander H. Conner, State Printer, 1868).

Notes and transcription by Chris Blankman, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Atkinson, letter to Irvin, 22 Jan. 1864, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
The veteran cause deals with Union soldiers and re-enlistment. Civil War soldiers enlisted for three years and were then able to re-enlist or go ahead with their everyday lives. Soldiers were persuaded to re-enlist by government incentives: money, alcohol, and most notably land. The Homestead Act of 1862 would grant any individual land, if they squatted on it for 5 years. An affidavit could be filed so that soldiers could accrue time while in service. Geographical origin also plays a large part in deciding whether or not a soldier would re-enlist. Soldiers from rural origins were more likely to re-up than those who were from urban settings. If departing before the war was over, rural soldiers could not return to their homes and work with their family farms with any honor or integrity. As did any individual of the time, Civil War soldiers based all decisions on what would benefit them the most. From Joseph Adkinson's background in agriculture and rural upbringing, one could justify saying that he re-enlisted to help support the war and his honor.

Source: John Robertson, "Re-Enlistment Patterns of Civil War Soldiers," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32 (Summer 2001), 15-35.

Notes and transcription by Matt McCarthy, HC 2013.

Elizabeth (Adkinson) Furnish (and Samuel Furnish), letter to Francis and Eliza Adkinson, 28-30 Jan. 1864, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.).
Elizabeth Furnish was Joseph Adkinson's aunt (Francis Adkinson's sister).

Source: "Family Tree for Adkinson Family Papers, Hanover College" Ancestry.com http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/17696007/recent (accessed 30 Apr. 2010).

Joseph M. Adkinson, letter to Francis Adkinson, 27 May 1864, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
The Hammond Hospital was located at Point Lookout, Maryland. Before the war, Point Lookout was a resort where people went to relax, though the resort was declining. When the fighting began, the government took use of the resort and made it into the Hammond Hospital. The first patients arrived August 17, 1862, but earlier in that same year, Marylanders from the Confederacy were confined in the hospital. In 1863, Robert E. Lee failed to get Pennsylvania, and more prisons were needed for those who were captured at Gettysburg. Since Point Lookout was very easily defensible, it was made a prison camp. It was named Camp Hoffman. By September 1863, 4,000 prisoners had arrived and 9,000 federal troops came for treatment. Within the period of the Civil War, Camp Hoffman held 52, 264 men and 3,400 of them died.

Source: David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, vol. 3 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO Inc., 2000), 1564.

Notes and transcription by Audrey Hanner, HC 2013.

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Irvin Adkinson, letter to Father, 9 June 1864, folder 5, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Irvin Adkinson was born in Indiana. Jo and Irvin were brothers and lived at home in 1860. Irvin was going to school then while Jo was a farm laborer. According to family papers, Jo entered into the Army in 1863, was wounded in both legs at the battle of Point Lookout, and died in the hospital from the wounds in 1864.

Sources: 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Joseph Adkinson," Pleasant, Switzerland County, Indiana, accessed through Ancestory.com; "The Adkinson Family," undated essay, [1994?], Adkinson Family Civil Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.) http://history.hanover.edu/texts/HC/Adkinson-family.html.

Note and transcription by Alayna Lind, HC 2016.

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Samuel Adkinson, letter to Father and Mother, 20 June 1864, folder 2, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letter, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover,Ind.).
Sam Adkinson survived the war. Sam was married to a women named Orinda. According to family papers, after the war, he was a preacher for many years until bad health caused him to give up work. After leaving work, Sam moved to Kansas in 1887. After moving to Indiana, he settled in Carrolton, Kentucky. He later died of a severe stomach problem.

Sources: "The Adkinson Family," undated essay, [1994?], Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.) available at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/HC/Adkinson-family.html; 1860 United States Census, s.v. "Sam Adkinson," Craig, Switzerland, Indiana, accessed through ancestry.com.

Note and transcription by Derek Dozier, HC 2016.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to Irvin, 22 June 1864, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
This letter is from the Adkinson Civil War Letters collection in the Duggan Library. The soldier wrote this letter home to his brother, Irvin, during the summer of 1864. The letter does not contain many references to actual conflict, though an interesting note is his mention of President Lincoln's call for 800,000 more troops. The main body of the letter discusses camp and the boredom many of the men experienced since there wasn't much to do.

Note and transcription by David Brownell, HC 2009.

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Samuel Adkinson, letter to Father and Mother, 6 July 1864, folder 2, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letter, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Samuel Adkinson wrote in his letter about a man Joe who was killed. He mentions how a man, Irvin, looked after Joe's remains. Irvin was Samuel's brother (age 25), and Joseph was his brother (killed at age 23). This information was discovered through the census record for his sister, Effie (age 18).

Source: 1860 United States census, s.v. "Effie Adkinson," Pleasant, Switzerland, Indiana, accessed through Ancestry.com.

Note and transcription by Abigail Blake, HC 2016.

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Samuel Adkinson, letter to Father and Mother, 20 July 1864, folder 2, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letter, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover,Ind.).
Samuel Adkinson married Orinda Hafford in January 1856. She was one year younger than Sam. (She was about 21 years old, and he was about 22 years old when they got married.) Sam lived in Craig, Switzerland county, Indiana from 1860 to 1880. He was a farmer by 1880. His son Aylmer was born in 1858 and died before 1870. His son Austin was born in 1860 and married Emma Adkinson in 1898; they move to Carrolton, Carroll county, Kentucky. Sam's son Edgar was born in 1857 and died before 1870. His other son John was born in 1864. John moved to Carrollton, Kentucky, around the time he married Martha Fisher in 1892.

Sources: Switzerland county, Indiana, Marriage Records 1831 - 1885, Part I - Grooms Part II - Brides Compiled by Knox, p. 409; 1880 United States census, Craig, Switzerland county, Indiana, roll 313, family history film, 1254313, p. 27C, enumeration district 168, image 0306; 1900 United States census, Carrollton, Carroll county, Kentucky; roll 513, p. 12B, enumeration district 0047, FHL microfilm 1240513. 1900 United States census, Carrollton, Carroll county, Kentucky; roll 513, p. 3A, enumeration district 0047, FHL microfilm 1240513; 1860 United States census, Craig, Switzerland county, Indiana, roll M653_299, p. 178, image 182, family history library film 803299; 1860 United States census, Craig, Switzerland county, Indiana, roll M653_299, p. 178, image 182, family history library film 803299.

Note and transcription by Andrew Laubner, HC 2016.

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Irvin Adkinson, letter to Home, 4 Dec. 1864, folder 5, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Irvin Adkinson traveled to eight different places. These places were Parkersburg (now in West Virginia); Monroe; Cincinnati, Ohio; Fairport, Missouri; Rochester, New York; Cleveland, Ohio; Wheeling (now in West Virginia); and Cheshire, Ohio. I also found a letter written to Irvin from his brother Jo that talked about Irvin's schooling and wondering how far he was from W. G. M. Stones. He is also a minister. This information led me to believe that Irvin was traveling because of schooling and the ministry.

Source: Joseph Adkinson, letter to Irvin Adkinson, 28 Oct. 1863, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.) http://history.hanover.edu/texts/HC/Adkinson.html.

Note and transcription by Erika Shepherd, HC 2016.

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Samuel Adkinson, letter to Father and Mother, 26 Mar. 1865, folder 2, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Orinda was Samuel Adkinson's wife. They were married in January of 1856 and Orinda's maiden name was Hafford. The 1860 census records show Orinda was 23 (born in Indiana in 1837) and lived in Switzerland county.
Olliver could be Samuel's brother. The 1860 census includes an Oliver Adkinson, and the census taker's misspelling could account for the single 'l' in his name. The information listed for Olliver included his age, 16 (born in Indiana in 1844) and his residence in Switzerland county in Indiana. What led me to believe this was the Olliver Samuel refers to in his letter was that the other family members included a Francis Adkinson, his father, and an Irvin Adkinson, his brother.

Sources: 1860 United States census, s.v. "Orinda Adkinson," Craig, Switzerland County, Indiana, accessed through ancestry.com; 1860 United States census, s.v. "Olliver Adkinson," Pleasant, Switzerland County, Indiana, accessed through ancestry.com; Switzerland county, Indiana, Marriage Records 1831 - 1885, Part I - Grooms Part II - Brides, compiled by Knox, p. 409.

Note and transcription by Ashlee Arbaugh, HC 2016.

Samuel Adkinson, letter to his father and mother, 16 Apr. 1865, folder 2, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
John Wilkes Booth had planned out a kidnapping for Lincoln months before, but on the scheduled day, he decided he was going to kill him at the Ford's Theatre instead. The reason for killing him was that Booth thought it would aid the South, but it did the opposite. Booth also plotted to assassinate Seward, the Secretary of State. He ordered Lewis Powell to do the honors. When Powell arrived at the home of Seward with medicine, he forced his way in stabbing him in the cheek and neck, but due to a previous carriage accident, Seward was wearing a neck brace, which took the majority of the impact and saved his life.

Source: Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982), s.v. assassination.

Note and transcription by Kellen Otto, HC 2016.

Joseph Adkinson, letter to Sister, January, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Indiana).
Levi was most likely a neighbor of Joseph Adkinson's cousins. That neighbor's name was Levi Seclam, and he was 18 years old in 1860. His father was a farmer, and his family lived near the family of Samuel Adkinson, Joseph Adkinson's cousins.
Malinda Shaddy was the wife of Fogelman Shaddy. The two were most likely friends of Joseph Adkinson. It is likely that Fogelman Shaddy was away at war with Joseph Adkinson. Malinda and Fogelman Shaddy had a daughter who was an infant in 1860.

Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office, Eighth Census, 1860, Hanover, Jefferson County, Indiana, s.v. "Levi", "Malinda," Heritage Quest, HeritageQuestOnline.com.

Notes and transcription by Paige Petty, HC 2013.

Joseph McHenry Atkinson, letter to Irvin, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).
Southern troops along the "Alexandria Line," also called the Department of the Potomac in 1861, then became known as the Potomac Army. In July, J.E. Johnston's Army of the Shenandoah joined with the Potomac Army for the first Battle of Bull Run.

Source: Mark M. Boutner III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: Mckay, 1959), 664.

Notes and transcription by Matt Murphy, HC 2013.

Fogleman Shaddy, letter [to Joseph Adkinson?], undated, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.).
Fogleman Shaddy married Malinda Adkinson (Joseph Adkinson's sister) in 1859.

Source: Biographical material, folder 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

Jane Adkinson, undated essay, [c. 1869], Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College, (Hanover, Ind.).
Jane Adkinson was Joseph Adkinson's sister. She was fifteen years old when he died.

Source: Biographical material, folder 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

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