Address by Rev. D.D. Macaulay, D.D.,
on the occasion of his being inaugurated President of Hanover College, March 28, 1838

Edited with Introduction by Hilary Sprinkle

Reverend D.D. Macaulay was the second President of Hanover College, inaugurated on March 28, 1838. In his inaugural address, Macaulay discussed the importance of Christianity and of education in the lives of Hanover students. He began his address with a discussion of the two lights God gave His creation-- the Sun and the Moon. Macaulay compared these lights to science and to the gospel. Macaulay argued that the latter light blesses humans in much the same way as the former.

In his address, Reverend Macaulay posited a connection between good learning and the Christian faith. He argued that Christianity had afforded students many opportunities in the past. He applauded the contributions Sir Francis Bacon made in philosophy and science while keeping his faith in Christianity. Macaulay also discussed the effect that the Islamic religion had on the intellectual pursuits of Arab peoples and people in eastern nations. Macaulay made the point that the Arabs constructed beautiful structures and made numerous scientific discoveries at a time when most of Europe was considered dead. When Islam became the foremost religion of many Arab countries, Macaulay argued, intellectual achievements among those peoples began to decline. The Arab nations no longer outranked the European nations in their accomplishments.

Macaulay sought to ensure the continued cultivation of the minds of Hanover students by emphasizing the unique relationship between Christianity and all worthwhile knowledge. He stressed the need for everyone at the college to engage continually in the pursuit of knowledge. Macaulay also argued for the right of women to advance in this pursuit, though he asserted that a woman's most important role was in the home. He closed his address with a charge to the faculty, the administration, the students, and the parents-- to continue their education. Through their combined efforts, Macaulay felt, the College would endure. The greatest blessing besides God's grace, Macaulay reminded his audience, is that of an education.

MARCH 28, 1838.

One of the most beneficial, and, at the same time, one of the most beautiful substances in the material world, is light. So essentially necessary was it for the comfort, if not for the very existence of man, that no sooner had the Great Fountain of light called into being the rude chaotic mass, from which arose this fair and beautiful world, than light was produced; and in a style of sublimity, corresponding in some degree, with the grandeur of the effect, the sacred historian informs us that God said, "Let there be light, and there was light." When time began to run his course, the Creator of the universe, appointed two great luminaries to preside over the spacious firmament, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: and these have continued to shine with undiminished splendor, ever since they were first lighted up, guiding and cheering in their pilgrimage the successive generations of men that have lived upon the face of the earth. While the most durable, and the most magnificent structures, that human power has ever erected have sunk into decay, and crumbled into dust, the Sun and Moon, the two great lights in the firmament, still remain with all the freshness and all the brilliancy given to them, as they came from the hand of their Maker. "Truly light is sweet and a pleasant thing, it is for the eyes to behold the light of the Sun;" but splendid as these lights are, and publishing as they have been doing in all ages, the power and goodness of Him, who spake them into being, yet, comparatively speaking, what would they have availed, amid the immensity of God's works, had there been no Intelligence, no mind, created, by which these mighty orbs, that roll in space might be contemplated and admired! From the study of the external universe, so replete with wonders, and which David in the 19th Psalm connects with "the law of the Lord which is perfect," our (4) wonder increases when we proceed to the study of the mind, the noblest image of the Divinity: and to meet man's exigencies as a rational, moral, and social being, something more was necessary to enlighten, and ennoble him, than the scanty information which he could glean, of the character and perfections of God, from the faint rays of nature's glimmering light. Had man continued "upright" as God made him, reason might have been sufficient to discover the character and perfections of God, and the mere light of nature, might have served to guide his conduct, but to man, (oh how changed!) - to man, guilty, corrupted, and depraved, the voice of reason, and the mere light of nature, are wholly inadequate to guide his erring footsteps, or conduct with certainty his moral speculations. These cannot dispel the almost impenetrable cloud that envelopes the moral horizon, and the mere light of nature, like the flash of lightening, that darts upon the eye of the traveller in a dark and moonless night, serves only to make the "darkness visible," and render the moral gloom the more horrific.

[79]In the midst of this mental gloom and desolation, God did not leave man, but communicated to him, in great kindness, the light of revelation to succour him in his impotent and imperfect state
- he unfolded to him a law which can conduct in the paths that lead to glory, honor, and immortality, - a law which is founded on the Eternal principles of rectitude - and a law which is a perfect transcript of the omniscient mind. This is the great moral sun given by God to enlighten man, for the light of which, we, in this part of the world, have the greatest reasons to be thankful to Him, who is the author of all spiritual light, and who has caused it to shine so abundantly around us, as a people.

In schools and Colleges, the grand object of those connected with them should be, not merely to cultivate a literary taste, and spread abroad sound learning, and increase the amount of scientific attainments, but decided and persevering efforts should be made, to imbue the minds of the students, with the great truths of Christianity, as taught and enforced in the scriptures of truth. The doctrines of that exalted Being, who condescended to assume our nature, and who declared himself to be the light of the world, must be taught, and His pure and holy precepts inculcated, (5) as well as those of philosophy and science: or in other words there are in the moral and intellectual, as in the material world, two great lights which are equally necessary for man as the light of the sun and moon, and which have been of unspeakable advantage to him, - I mean the light of Science and the light of the Gospel. It is delightful to reflect, that one of the noblest features of the age in which we live, is the zeal and activity displayed by many great and good men, to spread abroad, far and wide, all the discoveries of science, and the still nobler discoveries, which the light of revelation has shed around us. Christianity, and science, and civilization, have gone hand in hand, walking across, and enlightening many dark parts of our benighted world; and they should never be separated; for the one throws light up on the other, and when united, they are fitted and intended to promote the peace, and happiness, of all upon whom they shine. The student may, and ought, to make himself acquainted with all the systems of ancient philosophy, and with all the improvements in modern Science; but he is to bear in mind, that science is only the handmaid of Religion, and were she to be permitted to usurp the place of a mistress, and gain an ascendancy, she would be inverting the order appointed by Him, who is the author of that word "the entrance of which" David says, "giveth light." Smatterers in Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy, may imagine in the vanity of their hearts, that they have attained to a height from which they can look down with contempt on Revelation; but the truly philosophical mind, will find the farther he ascends the sublime walks of science, and enlarges his views, that he has the greater reason to admire the unsearchable treasures of wisdom, and light, and knowledge, which are contained in the word of God. The master-minds in science and philosophy, under whose guidance truth has been investigated most splendidly, and most successfully, have revered and loved, the light of Revelation. Look at Bacon, one of the lights of knowledge, and father of the true system of [80] philosophy, and who did more to advance the cause of sound learning, than the whole herd of infidel philosophers put together, and say, what was his testimony to the power and importance of Religion. "It is true (6) said he, "that a little philosophy inclineth man's mind to Atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to Religion." The names of many other illustrious men might be mentioned, who have demonstrate that it is sound wisdom to connect philosophy with religion, or the light of science with the light of the gospel; and since I have been appointed to the presidency of this College, in which literature, and science, and the doctrines of Christianity are taught, I knew of no subject of greater interest, and better fitted for the occasion of an inaugural address, than to endeavor to show you the connection which exists between Christianity and sound learning, and to call upon you to love and revere the former, and study assiduously to acquire the latter. That I may follow some order in my remarks, I shall endeavor first to show you the good results of Christianity as regards literature; and then, with the view of calling forth your gratitude, I shall direct your attention to the moral, and intellectual condition, of the inhabitants of those countries, in which Christianity is unknown, and consequently literature, and science.

Think for a moment on the beneficial effects of Christianity. What has it not done for mankind? The blessings which it has conferred upon the world, are not to be confined to the ameliorating of the moral, civil, religious, and political, condition of mankind: but the most polished nations now in existence, are indebted to it for the preservation, and diffusion of literature, and the elegant arts of painting, statuary, architecture and music. Christianity has been instrumental in preserving and disseminating moral, classical, and theological knowledge in every nation where it has been established. In what languages were the law, the gospel, the comments upon them, as also the works of the fathers written? The same as that in which the inscription on the cross was written; and it would prove of great use to the Understanding of the scriptures, if every one who aspires to the office of the ministry, should study to make himself intimately acquainted with the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages. As a knowledge of the doctrines of Christianity was contained in (7) books, it became necessary for every man who wished to become an intelligent and well informed christian, to obtain a knowledge of these languages, and particularly if his object was to become a teacher of others. So long as there was an order of men, whose business it was to qualify themselves for the rank of the priesthood, learning was by that means preserved. In such circumstances the amount might sometimes be small, but it never could have been entirely lost. In the time of Tacitus, in the year of our Lord 108, the German nations were strangers to letters; and two facts need only to he mentioned to prove that these nations were likely to have continued illiterate and ignorant, had not the teachers of the gospel exerted themselves for their instruction. The Goths, in the year of our Lord 270, having made themselves masters of Athens, brought together into one heap all the books they found there, and would have consumed the valuable treasure, had not one of them told his companions, that while the Greeks amused themselves with those, they neglected the art of war, and were easily overcome. In the year 298, Theodoric, a Gothic Prince would [81] not suffer the children of his subjects to be illustrated in the sciences, imagining that such instructions enervated the mind, and rendered men unfit for martial exploits, and that the youth who trembled at the rod, would never look undaunted at the spear or sword. But no sooner was Christianity propagated among barbarians, than they were instructed in the use of letters; and only let the light of the Gospel be permitted to shine - only let the beams of mercy, from the glorious sun of righteousness be revealed, and ignorance, and superstition will be dispelled. I need not detain you on this point, for almost every one who has read and reflected upon the past and present state of the world, will gratefully acknowledge the literary benefits conferred on mankind by Christianity. Go back to former ages, and inquire who communicated a knowledge of antiquities, sacred and profane? Who taught philology, or the literae humaniores? It was Christians. Who composed, for several of the centuries gone with the years beyond the flood, the Grammars, and Dictionaries, of the learned languages? It was Christians. Who were the most able and faithful chronologists, and historians, for a long period of the history of the world? - (8) Christians. Who has laid before the human mind, the most rational, and least absurd Systems of morality, and natural religion, and carried metaphysical researches, as far as they can perhaps be carried? Christians. Who has laid down the best moral rules to be observed by nations in peace and war, and has put the rights of subjects both as regards civil, and religious matters, up on the best foundation? Christians. Oh no the world is not greatly indebted to Infidels and Deists; and it is well known that some of the Deistical writers of the 17th and 18th centuries, were ignorant and illiterate, and consequently could not advance the cause of truth, or science or literature. The interest which I feel in your welfare, has induced me to address you on this most important subject. Value the Christian Revelation. It is intimately connected with your peace, and happiness in this life, and inseparably connected with your character, and condition in the ceaseless ages of your future existence.

I shall now as was proposed, call your attention to the moral, and intellectual condition, of the inhabitants of some countries, where the blessings of Christianity are unknown, and unfelt. -Take the Mahometans of the present day; and there is no want of evidence, to enable us to form a pretty accurate judgment, either concerning the effects which Mahometanism produces upon the human intellect, or the state of human society. The experiment of establishing this religion, and the trial of that form of political administration which it involves, has been fully and fairly made; and that too under circumstances peculiarly suited to the full developement of their effects upon man. Many nations celebrated for wealth, learning, and civilization, as well as many semi-barbarous tribes, were within a very short period, obliged to become converts to the faith of Islam. The system was indeed propagated by fire and sword: but between three and four centuries have elapsed since it was established over the greater part of Asia. What then are the consequences of the establishment of this religion? Has it ameliorated as Christianity has done, in any degree the condition of those nations, and tribes, who were reduced to the necessity of choosing between Mahometanism and extermination? Has it promoted the increase or civilization [82] of the one, or increased the wealth, learning, (9) power, and prosperity of the other? Has it produced refinement of national sentiment, or elevation of national character? Has it cherished that spirit of chivalry, and of liberty, that taste for literature, and the fine arts, that enthusiastic desire for the prosecution of the study of philosophy, and the sciences, that characterized the nations of the East, and the West, before it overspread the Asiatic continent? Are the Mahometan nations of the present day distinguished as the Arabians were before the Koran was forced upon them by the sword? Are they distinguished for that rich and exuberant flow of poetical feelings, and that Union of noble, and elevated sentiment, which urged those who possessed it to those splendid exertions in literature, and in science, which, while they infinitely surpassed those of the whole world besides, were of such magnitude and excellence, that the very fragments of them, which have survived the ravages of the spoiler, are to this day, objects of wonder, and astonishment? - Every one who has taken even the most partial glance at the state of Asiatic society, will be at no loss to answer these interrogatories. The learning of the Arabians, like "the meteor of the night of distant years, " has disappeared. The polished state of Asia have sunk into barbarism. A state of Anarchy, and terror has been entailed upon every Mahometan nation, from the moment it was subjected to the baleful influences of the faith of Islam. Misery and desolation, have in every case followed the introduction of Mahometanism into a country, and in no case can that he said of Christianity. Barbarism, depopulation, and the degradation of the human intellect, are therefore the consequences of this system of religion, so far as the present life is concerned. This may he seen from contemplating the present state of those Mahometan countries, which were once inhabited by nations famous for literature, science, and liberty, but which are now the residence of an enslaved, ignorant, and oppressed race of men. So completely has Mahometanism swept away all the vestiges of learning, and taste of antiquity, from the soil of Asia, that it is in vain to attempt to find there even the frailest memorial of those stupendous monuments of literary fame, with which the ancient Asiatics astonished the rest of mankind. There, in the words of the poet, (10)

"Illustrious deeds, and memorable names ,
"Blotted from record, are upon the tongue
"Of grey tradition, volable no more."
Let me here particularize as regards the effects of the establishment of Mahometanism, that I may secure your gratitude for the privileges of light and liberty which you enjoy. Take Bagdad, once a city famous for being the residence of men eminent for the extent of their acquirements in all the departments of science, and celebrated for the wealth, and magnificence of its inhabitants, and in what state is it now? It is nearly depopulated. The Universities of Cufa, and Bassora, once so justly distinguished for the number and learning of their Professors and students, are now deserted, and shut, and the voice of science hushed into all the stillness of death. Take also the Colleges of Samarcand, and Baleh, and what do you say of them? They are in ruins. The fertile regions of [83] Palestine, anal Syria, are over-run by banditti, and depopulated by hordes of wandering Beduins. Egypt too, once the most powerful, and famous of Kingdoms, if not the basest, is at least, not noble, and learned. Fez and Morocco which not more than five hundred years ago, were regions fertile, and highly cultivated, illuminated by great numbers of Academies, and Colleges, that were reared and sustained by a numerous and highly spirited population, are now nearly abandoned by man, and are dreary and inhospitable deserts of burning sand, for the possession of which, despots and savages, contend with lions and tigers. The fertile shores of Mauritania, where agriculture the arts, and commerce, once enriched an industrious race of men, are now the haunts of robbers, and free booters, and instead of presenting to the spectator, a view of the cultivation of the peaceful arts, and society flourishing, they are the scenes of riot, debauchery, and cruelty. Throughout the whole of these immense territories, nothing is to be found in human society, that approaches in any degree, to the state of things which existed previous to the introduction of the religion of Mahomet. All is barbarity, ignorance, and oppression. The remains of the splendid literary productions of the Arabs, are not now to be found in the country to which they owe their existence. When Europe was involved in the thickest darkness, Arabian literature, arose like (11) a brilliant meteor, and shone amidst the gloom which surrounded it, with the most dazzling brightness. For although when it appeared, it was splendid in the extreme, it had scarcely burst forth when it was extinguished, and the deepest gloom again overspread the horizon. "Omne latet coelum, duplicatque noctis imago." - The present race of Arabians, would neither be able to read nor understand the writings of their forefathers, even were the fragments of' ancient Arabic literature that remain, to be put into their hands. But strange to telL these very fragments are not to be found among the Arabians. They are in the possession of foreigners. The parts of them that have survived the ravages of barbarism, and ignorance, are only to be found either in the libraries of Europeans, in the dormitories of monks, or buried in the Escurial. Now my young friends, these are some of the consequences, which the establishment of a false religion, has produced upon human society, and from which you are happily exempted, by enjoying the invaluable blessing of living in a country where Christianity is known, and its worth appreciated. - In contemplating Asia, and musing upon those vast countries which are still celebrated for the immense literary riches which they once contained, but which have been annihilated by Mahometanism, do you not feel your Christian sympathies called forth towards that land of darkness, and fierce superstition? At present we are unabled to discover one spot, upon which the eye of the Christian, can linger with delight. All is gloomy as the shades of death. Asiatic society has not one of those lovely attractions, which spring from that peace, and love, which the light of the Gospel, brings down to man. All those extensive countries in which Mahometanism prevails, and it does prevail over the fairest, and most extensive regions of the globe, are to the eye of the Christian, moral wastes, - doomed to desolation, and misery, as long as their inhabitants, retain the yoke of the false prophet.

There is, perhaps, in the human breast, a proneness to submit to the will [84] of superiors, by far too powerful for the happiness of those whose minds, as the Mahometans must be, not rightly constituted by means of education, and example. If this passive (12) disposition be strengthened by the force of religious principle; and every obstacle that education presents is borne down, then the faculties of the soul sink into slavish submission, and servile acquiescence. It is however one of the happiest results of increasing civilization, to correct the propensity. But here, alas! in Mahometan countries, no corrective for this propensity exists. It was the policy of Mahomet to cherish, rather than to repress, this disposition; and it is to this policy, that the stupidity, cowardice, and ignorance of the Asiatics of the present day, are to be attributed. It is this mischievous policy, that has made Mahometans a miserable, enslaved, and oppressed race - a people living in anarchy, - robbed of their liberty, and subjected to the endurance of the disgusting, and oppressive acts of a pure, unmixed despotism, the natural effect of which is, to repress, and extinguish, all the finer feelings that fire the human breast, - such as a love of honor, - and the desire of fame.

But it was not always thus with Asia. While Europe was involved in the grossest intellectual darkness, Arabia was the abode of the arts, the seat of taste, literature, and science. This wonderful country, before Mahometainsm was introduced, was prolific in works of art, and abounded with the fruits of the labors of men, illustrious for the splendor of their acquirements, in every department of knowledge. During the whole of that dismal period, which Europeans denominate the dark ages, Arabia flourished under a succession of wise, and learned men and could boast of many Academies, Colleges, Universities, and Libraries. There the arts flourished when they were almost unknown in Europe. There the sciences found an illustrious asylum, when they were banished from those parts of the civilized world that were under the sway of imperial Rome. There philosophy was studied, with the most enthusiastic ardor, and with the most brilliant success. There the productions in literature, and the discoveries in science, were splendid in the extreme. While Europe languished in ignorance, being placed under the domination of an ignorant, intolerant, and usurping priesthood, the progress which the Arabians made in the culture of the mind, was as rapid, as it was brilliant. It is asserted by some, that the first ideas of all (13) the great modern discoveries, as they are commonly denominated namely: glass, powder, paper, painting, the mariner's compass, &c. originated with the wandering Arabs, long before they were known in Europe. While the Roman Empire was overrun by innumerable swarms of Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other barbarian tribes, who having vanquished their foes, spread over the Roman territories, and advanced to the Capital, marking their progress by devastation, and blood, corrupting the purity of the language of the inhabitants of the prostrate empire, and destroying almost all the monuments of ancient, and modern wisdom, and art, to which their rage could extend, the literature of the Arabs, bursts forth amid the universal darkness, as if a stream of light had spread along the sky, illuminating the heavens, with its brilliant radiance. As a proof of the gigantic scale upon which the Arabs projected their literary pursuits, it is said, that the thousand tales, forming the well known volume of "the Arabian night's entertainment," comprehended [85] only about the fortieth part of the original collection. The labors of this singular people, in the other departments of literature, were conducted on a scale of proportional magnitude. Several of our most valuable treatises on Algebra, and the higher branches of Mathematics, are simply translations from Arabian works. Thus, while the fervid imagination of this people, was employed in the production of a gay and original kind of amusement, their language was used as a medium for communicating information, respecting the abstract sciences, and the elegant arts.

But Mahometanism, like the burning wind of the desert, when it passes over a Caravan of inexperienced travellers, has destroyed the energies of the people upon whom it has rested - it has withered all the faculties of the soul, when, if the light which you enjoy, the light of the Gospel, had been permitted to dawn upon them, it is doubtful to say, to what a height of intellectual, moral and religious eminence, they would have arrived.

A Tornado visited this place, leaving vestiges of its rage, and fury, and sparing, not even your CoUege: but Mahometanism has done worse than sweep away buildings, and uproot trees, and mar the beauty of material arrangements; it has swept away all (14) the intellectual wealth, and magnificence to which I have been alluding. Your Tornado vented its rage only upon inanimate matter, upon the College edifice, which can be repaired, and rebuilt, perhaps upon a larger and more commodious scale, while mind, the nobler part of man, remains unscathed; but Mahometanism, has so completely swept away all intellectual wealth from off the face of those places which it has visited, that scarce a vestige of it remains: or, in other words, to keep up the figure, with which I commenced, Mahometanism has put out the light of science, and in its place reigns darkness horrible. Civilization and the arts, fled at the approach of this pestilence: and literature faded, beneath its withering influence. Before it, we may say in the language of the poet,

"The pomp of learning, the parade of letters, and
"Of tongues, were as the mists
"Of the grey morn, before the rising sun,
"That pass away, and perish."

But it were nothing, comparatively speaking, had only the light of science been extinguished - nothing in comparison of the evil that has been done by the establishment of this system of imposture, had no other harm resulted to it, from human society. - While it has destroyed the energies of the soul of man - while it has repressed the love of fame, and the spirit of liberty, within the human breast, it has done far worse at the same time. It has hardened the hearts of men - and blinded their eyes against the glorious light of the Gospel; and prepared them, as it were, to stand out in an attitude of determined hostility against Christianity.

Dwells there then one spark of gratitude in your breasts, to the Fountain of all Light, for His numberless benefits, bless Him I would say with all your [86] souls, for the light of the Gospel; and the most effectual way for you to manifest your gratitude for this goodness, and mercy, and for the glorious light he hath caused to shine around you, is to walk in that light - to bring your deeds to the light - and to show by your whole deportment that ye are the children of light. In God's written communication to man, which you are to be most diligent in studying, there shines forth (15) a fuller and brighter light, than you can perceive, from studying His works; but it does not follow from that circumstance that you are not to study His works at all. God never designed, by giving us His word, to deprive us of the pleasure we may enjoy, and the information we may gather, from studying his works. We may say, He has set the one light, his word, above the other: but not against the other: and He never intended that the light of revelation, should blind us against the light of reason, but it was to extend our vision, and carry us above, and beyond, to a region into which reason, could not ascend alone and unaided. Every department of science, and human learning, should if possible, come more or less, under the review of the student, that his mind may become enlarged, improved, and strengthened. - Because the light of the sun shines through the day, dispelling the clouds of the morning, and dazzling with his splendor the whole heavens, would it be wise on the part of the traveller, whose circumstances required him to advance onwards in his journey, after the sun had sunk in the west, to shut his eyes, and refuse to avail himself of the friendly aid which the lesser light, the moon, was able to shed around his path, merely because her rays were less brilliant, than those which issued from the "great original." Equally absurd is it for any man, or body of men, to undervalue, or despise the light which science and human learning can afford, as helps to study the word of God, and qualify for the proper discharge of the duties connected with either of the other two learned professions. In this age of innovation, and extremes, of quackery, and lofty pretension, men, from whom better things might have been expected, have been known to decry human learning as unnecessary: and it is to be regretted, that in some cases they have made injurious impressions upon some honest, but weak minded individuals: but I hope every student that may enter this College, will use every means, and strain every nerve, to add to his stock of knowledge, that when he leaves this place, he may go out into the world, "thoroughly furnished," and prepared, not to degrade, but to raise the profession to which he may attach himself. Enlarge to the greatest possible extent the range of your studies: aim high, and press onwards; (16) admire the splendor of the firmament, and the glory, and the greatness, which God has stretched out in the heavens; understand if you can, the laws which govern the planets in their courses, and come down from such elevated contemplations, to the study of the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral kingdoms; but stop not your studies there, but proceed onwards, and look into the inner parts of heaven's temple, where shines a greater glory still. Summon forth every power of your mind, and tax your every energy in the study of the mysteries of nature, but forget not to study also, the mysteries of godliness. Go to the fountain head of all human knowledge, and refresh, and strengthen your minds, with the delicious draughts that can be obtained there, but forget not, if you have any regard for your own best interests here, and your future happiness hereafter, to drink deep [87] at the well springs that are in Zion. The elevation of character, which science, and literature will impart, and the refined pleasures which flow from such inexhaustible sources, should stimulate every young man to engage zealously in a course of study; but when he does so, he should not rest satisfied with these acquisitions, but should aspire to possess the more exalted pleasures, of enlightened piety, and Christian devotion: and while the Professors of this College, will ever be solicitous to see that the great principles of the Christian religion he honored, and regarded by the students, it will be their aim at the same time, to keep literature and science distinct from the minuter peculiarities of religious belief. Feeling a deep interest as I shall do, in the progress of every student who may attend this Institution, my visits to the different classes will be frequent; and my object will be, to render the plan of Education to be pursued, as comprehensive as possible, fitted to prepare young men for any of the learned professions, as also for the business of life. I have heard with regret, many parents whose wish was to train their sons for agricultural and commercial pursuits, say, there was no use in giving them a College Education, as they did not intend them for any of the learned professions. Are none but Clerical, Medical, and Legal gentlemen, to have cultivated minds? Would not every parent be gratified, to put it in the power of his son, were he to (17) become a merchant, to be regarded as an intelligent, well informed man, in possession of a mind disciplined, and adorned by a good education? Because a man is destined to become a cultivator of the ground, does it follow that he is to be allowed little, or no time, to cultivate the faculties of the mind, and become acquainted with the curious workings of his own Soul? The prosperity of commerce, and improvements in agriculture, are objects in themselves of very high importance, and should not the very men who engage in such pursuits, be also men of Education, and should not a College be the very place to which young men of such views, should be sent for a year or two, to engage in the study of mental science? Is the human mind, - the noblest image of the Divinity, not worth studying; and is man to transmute himself into a being who shall employ his faculties for no nobler purpose, than in eating, and dressing, and accumulating riches, and never be taught to think of the frame of his own mind: or of his relations to God, and to man: nor consider how he is to live, and how he is to die? Every parent then whose mind is enlightened, will at once see the propriety of allowing to his son, a certain portion of time for mental cultivation, even though he should not design him to be engaged through life, in following a literary avocation.

As I shall have abundant opportunities of addressing you on subjects connected with your studies, there is no necessity for me delaying you much longer at this time, particularly as you have been, and are still to be engaged, in attending to the Semi-annual Exhibitions of this College.

Permit me to add, that it will be the duty of the Trustees of Hanover College, to make the Class rooms, and building as convenient and comfortable as possible: and there is little doubt but a generous public will aid them in funds to do so. It will be my duty, and that of the other professors to attend to the [88] intellectual department; and exert ourselves to promote the literary improvement of those committed to our charge. The Trustees and Professors of the College, have no interest, apart from the improvement of the students; and it is earnestly hoped, that the conduct of every young man belonging to this College will be (18) exemplary, and becoming a student. We will feel grieved for the misconduct of a pupil, with something of the same feelings as the father who mourns over the folly of a thoughtless child: and out of regard for his best interests, we will counsel, and admonish, and reprove him, that he may return into the paths of rectitude. Better things we hope of every one of you, because you are students: because you are to be engaged in moral, and intellectual pursuits, which will have a tendency to improve the understanding, and purify the heart. You are to have your amusements, but they are to be such as will be favorable to health, and tend to recreate, but never let them be of a degrading character. - If you will permit yourselves to be engaged as much as possible in laudable, honorable, and useful pursuits, you will he daily adding to your own individual happiness, independently of being a blessing to society. As students, there lies before every one of you, a boundless field of exertion, and by putting forth your energies, and disciplining your minds now, you may force your way to places of high distinction and usefulness. You will soon launch upon the great stage of life: and if you act your part well, an honor will be reflected upon your "alma mater," and a high gratification will he imparted to the minds of your instructors, which will repay them in some degree, for all their anxieties about you, and encourage them in all their future labors among the young. As young men of spirit, let me call upon you not to be content with mediocrity: be the first in the first rank. Place before your imaginations, and for your example, your great predecessors that have figured in the world, and despair not of reaching the same eminence which they have attained. To the same height you may climb. The field of a glorious competition is open, and the road to fame is accessible to every aspiring young man, now before me. You have only to resolve: and provided you are determined to study, and act with persevering, Untiring assiduity, in the pursuit of the determination to be eminent and useful, you will not be disappointed. Let not the best half of your days be over, before you begin to think how you should have acted. Every thing depends upon yourselves - upon your resolutions - upon your labor, and diligence. Every (19) student now before me, may not be in possession of an exalted genius, but every one has faculties of mind so capable of improvement, that if they be but diligently cultivated, they will supply the place of genius, and open up brighter prospects of ultimate success, than any mere genius, unassisted by study, can hope to attain. Comply you with the conditions, and I assure you of success: and struggling with difficulties is the condition of success, and surmounting them, is the sure reward. Every thing depends upon the labor, and diligence of the individual. Let then that ardent thirst for knowledge, and distinction, that pure ambition, and virtuous emulation, which

"Scorns delight, and lives laborious days"

inflame your souls, and urge you onwards, to prepare yourselves for [89] places of trust, and respectability, as scattered over not merely this state, but which embraces the wide circle of a continent. Wrestle with every difficulty: labor hard, and your mental strength will increase - darkness will flee before you, and light, and vigor, will dart into your souls. I have been holding up only worldly motives, to fire you to deeds of noble intellectual daring, and lofty enterprize, but there remain obligations stronger than any yet mentioned to encourage, and stir you up to early, and continued exertion. You are bound by a sense of obedience to the will of God, - by the account you must at last render, not of moral actions only, but of the use, or neglect, of the faculties given by God to you for improvement, - faculties of mind which you are bound to improve, in order that you may be the better fitted to benefit your fellow creatures, and promote the great cause of truth and religion throughout the world. Let such considerations influence your minds. America is blest with light, and liberty. The Sun of knowledge has risen gloriously over the land, and dispelled the mists of error and prejudice, and caused a flood of light to gild, not only the tops of the mountains, but shine in the valleys below, and irradiate with its beams, all ranks of society: and it should be your study to obtain when here, so much of the light which science and Revelation hold out, as will enable you, when you leave College, to diffuse, and increase the amount of knowledge, over that sphere (20) in which you may be called by Providence to move. As I said before, we, as Professors, have no object in view, no end to serve, but your improvement; and if you will only co-operate with us, and strive to excel, what will we not accomplish? We live on a spot favor-able for study - it is healthy and retired, as every location for a College should be. We live far from the haunts of vice and immorality - in a place where the Muses may be wooed, a contemplative spirit may be formed and cherished without being exposed to those fascinations which abound in large cities, and which too frequently distract, and bewitch the youthful mind, if they do not altogether cor-rupt and ruin the character. It is of no small importance then for parents in the selecting of a spot to which they intend to send their sons to be educated, to be careful to fix upon one, in which they may be placed in circumstances as favorable as possible for the preserving of those virtuous and religious habits, in which they have been brought up. - A College in a large city which may be, not only unhealthy, but corrupt in morals, should never be chosen, if a more eligible could be got, as a place to send a young man to, particularly, if he cannot be placed under the watchful care of some individual who will act the part of a parent towards him. Alas! how many promising young men have been ruined, by having been sent to live unrestrained in a Boarding house in large cities: and instead of acquiring virtuous habits and useful knowledge, have become the victims of idleness, and every species of vice. To such temptations you are happily not exposed; and I trust you will long he preserved from them. While I am anxious that you acquire studious habits, I do not wish you so to study, as to injure your health. It has been said, that an attention to health, should be a part of our religion, and hence, the scriptures enjoin temperance, which is with exercise and cleanliness, perhaps the best means for the preserving of health. Let me advise you to pay a proper attention to your health. Many young men, partly with a view to conquer the difficulties they meet with in the course of their studies, and [90] partly in order to increase their stock of knowledge, and the pleasure which results from it, confine themselves too much, and neglect to take that degree of exercise (21) which is necessary for the preservation of health. The constitution of the body is such, that exercise to a certain degree is necessary for its health, and therefore, for answering the purposes of the active mind. Without such exercise, the body becomes disordered - health decays - the spirits flag - and the ardor of the mind, united with a body so distempered and out of tune, being cooled and damped, its efforts are rendered feeble and ineffectual. Thus many by neglecting this caution shorten their days, or at least, drag out a kind of useless life in sickness and pain. Take therefore the counsel which experience dictates; and to the labor of the mind, add the exercise of the body. To both you can, and ought to attend. We will as far as is practicable, make this College a desirable residence for every student who may choose to enter it. Like a large self contained House, in which there is every accommodation and convenience, for the comfort and happiness of a large family, we will endeavor to have on hand a rich supply of intellectual goods, of a quality equal to any to be found, and at prices not exorbitant, so that no one will require to travel to a distance to replenish his intellectual wardrobe. The merchants in the Western world, who trade in diverse articles, to supply the wants of the mere "outer man," have to make their annual journies to the East, at no small expense, to supply western wants, with Eastern manufactories; and perhaps that circumstance may have contributed to make the good people of the East fancy, that because we in the West lack many things, we also lack Knowledge. We give the men of the East credit for many good things; and it is long since it has been said that wise men come from the East, but this being a world of change, as well as of improvement, it must be gratifying to our Eastern friends to know, that light, which travels with immense velocity, has some how or other reached the Western world; and that literature, and philosophy, and science are known, and loved, and studied, even along the banks of the Ohio.

In conclusion I would say, let the charms of science and literature engage your attention - let the improvements in arts, and the pleasures of innocent, and improving conversation with each other, embrace a portion of your time; let politics engage to a (22) certain extent your attention, although I would by no means wish to see you wrangling politicians, and hot headed partizans. -Let the enlarged and liberal politics of a philanthropist, and a citizen of the world, and not that of a party engage you, and cherish as much as possible, every sentiment and feeling that may have a tendency to counteract a spirit of sectarianism.

In more cases than one, when ladies made a respectful application to be admitted to listen to inaugural addresses, were they denied the favor they solicited, on the ground that it was quite unacademical to admit them within the walls of a College. Such a decision was unworthy this age of gallantry and politeness; and the Senatus Academicus that could have given such a veto, must have been made of the sternest stuff, (probably cynical philosophers, whose doctrines correspond very much with those of the Stoics,) or they never could have summoned up enough of courage to come to the resolution of excluding the Ladies. Women [91] are capable of reasoning, reflecting and judging, as well as men: and the number present today is sufficient to convince us, that we live in a country where woman is respected, and that she also feels an interest in Education. No doubt home is the sphere of woman's best and happiest exertions; but as Christianity has done every thing to elevate her character, promote her happiness, and increase the sphere of her usefulness, it well becomes her to rank herself on the side of Christianity, and learning. The enlightened female knows that wherever Christianity is unknown, there her sex is sunk and degraded - she becomes the slave and toy of man, not his companion and friend: and every well constituted mind will feel disposed to enlist woman on the side of the Christian Religion, and the advancement of knowledge and refinement. Her influence is felt and acknowledged; let it be wisely and usefully directed, and the results will be favorable to moral and intellectual improvement. Females are personally and deeply concerned in the preserving of pure, and undefiled religion in the world; and every lover of his species is pledged to the zealous support of every measure, and of every Institution, adapted to promote the intellectual and moral improvement of society. In union is strength. We must all (23) co-operate to advance the cause of learning - raise the standard and diffuse it, as extensively as possible. There lies before us still a wide field of improvement; and let our minds be kindled into enthusiasm on the subject of learning and science, and progress will be the result, and every difficulty will give way before us.

No doubt the circumstances of a comparatively new country may for a short time prevent that division of labor in teaching which in the sciences, as well as in other pursuits, is necessary to ensure perfection: yet we may, nevertheless, hope that with due exertion and perseverance, not only a solid foundation in literature and science may be laid in this College, but that also a superstructure, both durable and ornamental, may be erected upon that basis. Next to the Divine blessing, the greatest blessing that can be bestowed upon man is the blessing of a good, sound, virtuous, and useful education: and as far as our means and abilities will go, it will be the aim and object of the instructors in this Institution - to teach well. We hope and pray that all our endeavors, and the endeavors of those who may succeed us in the office will be evidently such, as to merit the favor of God -secure the estimation, and promote the best interests of all concerned. From the domestic circles of moral and religious people, may successions of well disposed youth, nurtured in proper principles, hither resort, and here be formed to virtu-ous, well educated, accomplished manhood - here may they abundantly lay up for themselves, and hence carry into the world, ever retain and always display, in all the duties and relations of life, the advantages of a good education: and may all who are educated here be preserved in after life, from the baneful principles of infidelity, irreligion, heresy, and false doctrine.

Firm and long may this Institution stand and flourish - firm in the hearts and affections of the people of a free country, with so many free Institutions - firm may it stand in the affections of the students who have resorted, or may resort to it - firm in the hearts of a benevolent public; and may the means soon be obtained, by which its material form may be enlarged and extended, and all its capacities [92] to do good be promoted, in order to (24) meet the increasing demands of a rising and prosperous people; and may it even maintain a high and distinguished reputation, as a place of general learning, and useful knowledge.