Two of the following questions will appear on the exam. You will be asked to write on one of the two.
1. What were the origins of the French Revolution (through 1789)? Why did the French Revolution radicalize after 1789 (through 1795)? In what ways did Robespierre justify the radicalization of the revolution?
2. How were liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism defined between 1815 and 1871? What were the successes and failures of each of these ideologies during this period?
3. To what extent was U.S. history "exceptional" or unique in the era from colonial times until 1871? How did the American Revolution compare to the liberal revolutions of Europoe? To what extent were European ideologies of conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism manifest in U.S. history? Did the Civil War parallel trends or patterns in Europe?
4. Using Marx and Engels's treatment of the rise and triumph of the bourgeoisie and the (future) rise and triumph of the proletariat, explain how Marx and Engels understood historical change and the path of history, from the ancient world to the victory of the proletariat.