Two of the following questions will appear on the exam. You will be asked to write on one of the two.
1. How were liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism defined between 1815 and 1871? What were the successes and failures of each of these ideologies during this period?
2. How would John Locke and Adam Smith evaluate and criticize the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels? How would Marx and Engels evaluate and criticize the theores of Locke and Smith?
3. To what extent was U.S. history "exceptional" or unique in the era from 1815 to 1914? To what extent were European ideologies of conservatism, liberalism, socialism, and nationalism manifest in U.S. history?
4. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, advocates of the same ideologies and causes often adopted different arguments, objectives, and strategies. Explain the differences among liberals (using Green and Spencer), among socialist (using Marx, Bernstein, and Webb), among feminists (using Hearings), and among African American reformers (using Washington and DuBois).