Two of the following questions will appear on the exam. You will be asked to write on one of the two.
1. Explain the new science and new scientific method as embodied in the work of Isaac Newton. What were the obstacles that the new science faced and how were Galileo and Newton able to overcome them?
2. How do Voltaire, Hume, Montesquieu, and Smith illustrate the objectives, ideals, and beliefs of the philosophes.
3. What were the origins, ideals, and consequences of the American revolution?
4. What were the origins of the French Revolution (through 1789)? Why did the French Revolution radicalize after 1789 (through 1795)? In what ways did Robespierre justify the radicalization of the revolution?
5. To what extent did America (the North American British colonies and the United States republic) resemble Europe (and particularly Britain) in the 17th and 18th centuries? What were the similarities and differences in the historical development of America and Europe?