Captain John Smith

excerpts from three autobiographical works:

A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Noate as Hath Hapned in Virginia (1608)

Letter from Captain John Smith to Queen Anne (1617)

The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624)

Excerpts from the Original Electronic Text for True Relation, found at American Journeys; excerpts from the Original Electronic Text for Smith's letter to Queen Anne (reprinted in Generall Historie) found at Documenting the American South; and excerpts from the Original Electronic Text for Generall Historie, found at Documenting the American South.

Note that most of the text below comes from Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia, published in 1624. The exceptions are for his famous meeting with Powhatan; each of the three versions he told of the story appears below (one from 1608, one from 1617, and one from 1624).

N.B. Spelling has been modernized here (as has punctuation and paragraphing to a limited degree). The headings and paragraph numbers provided are not part of the original document. Editorial explanations are in square brackets [ ]. The remaining text is Smith's. (Note that he describes himself in the third person -- i.e. as he rather than I.)


Smith and the Other Colonists Start Their New Lives, Fall 1607
{1} Being thus left to our fortunes, it fortuned that within ten days scarce ten amongst us could either go, or well stand, such extreme weakness and sickness oppressed us. And thereat none need marvel, if they consider the cause and reason, which was this; whilst the ships stayed, our allowance was somewhat bettered by a daily proportion of Biscuit, which the sailors would pilfer to sell, give, or exchange with us, for money, sassafras, furs, or love. But when they departed, there remained neither tavern, beer house, nor place of relief, but the common Kettle. Had we been as free from all sins as gluttony and drunkenness, we might have been canonized for Saints; But our President would never have been admitted, for engrossing to his private [use], Oatmeal, Sack, Oil, Aquavitae, Beef, Eggs, or what not. But the Kettle, that indeed he allowed equally to be distributed, and that was half a pint of wheat, and as much barley boiled with water for a man a day, and this having fried some 26 weeks in the ship's hold, contained as many worms as grains; so that we might truly call it rather so much bran then corn, our drink was water, our lodgings Castles in the air: with this lodging and diet, our extreme toil in bearing and planting Pallisadoes, so strained and bruised us, and our continual labor in the extremity of the heat had so weakened us, as were cause sufficient to have made us as miserable in our native Country, or any other place in the world. From May to September, those that escaped lived upon Sturgeon, and Sea-crabs, fifty in this time we buried. . . .

{2}[Smith and others recovered from their illnesses.] But now was all our provision spent, the Sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned, each hour expecting the fury of the Savages; when God the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the Savages, that they brought such plenty of their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted. . . .

{3}The new President and Martin, being little beloved, of weak judgement in dangers, and less industry in peace, committed the managing of all things abroad to Captain Smith: who by his own example, good words, and fair promises, set some to mow, others to bind thatch, some to build houses, others to thatch them, himself always bearing the greatest task for his own share, so that in short time, he provided most of them lodgings, neglecting any for himself. This done, seeing the Savages' superfluity begin to decrease (with some of his workmen) shipped himself in the Shallop to search the Country for trade. The want of the language, knowledge to manage his boat without sails, the want of a sufficient power (knowing the multitude of the Savages), apparel for his men, and other necessaries were infinite impediments, yet no discouragement. Being but six or seven in company he went down the river to Kecoughtan, where at first they scorned him, as a famished man, and would in derision offer him a handful of Corn, a piece of bread, for their swords and muskets, and such like proportions also for their apparel. But seeing by trade and courtesy there was nothing to be had, he made bold to try such conclusions as necessity enforced, though contrary to his Commission: Let fly his muskets, ran his boat on shore, whereat they all fled into the woods. So marching towards their houses, they might see great heaps of corn: much ado he had to restrain his hungry soldiers from present taking of it, expecting as it happened that the Savages would assault them, as not long after they did with a most hideous noise. Sixty or seventy of them, some black, some red, some white, some party-colored, came in a square order, singing and dancing out of the woods, with their Okee (which was an Idol made of skins, stuffed with moss, all painted and hung with chains and copper) borne before them: and in this manner being well armed, with Clubs, Targets, Bows and Arrows, they charged the English, that so kindly received them with their muskets loaded with Pistol shot, that down fell their God, and divers lay sprawling on the ground; the rest fled again to the woods, and ere long sent one of their Quiyoughkasoucks to offer peace, and redeem their Okee. Smith told them, if only six of them would come unarmed and load his boat, he would not only be their friend, but restore them their Okee, and give them Beads, Copper, and Hatchets besides: which on both sides was to their contents performed: and then they brought him Venison, Turkeys, wild fowl, bread, and what they had, singing and dancing in sign of friendship till they departed.

Powhatans capture Smith in December 1607
{4} [Smith was exploring the Chickahominy river, having gone ahead of the group with a native guide.] Finding he was beset with 200 Savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a Savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters, and used him as a buckler. [That is, Smith tied his native guide to his arm to make him a human shield against the Powhatan arrows.] Yet he [Smith] was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stuck in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner.

{5}[Before being taken prisoner, he and his attackers had been at a standoff. After he killed three of them and frightened others with his gun, he stumbled into a bog and was trapped there. Even so, none of them would come near him] till being near dead with cold, he threw away his Arms. Then according to their composition they drew him forth and led him to the fire, where his men were slain. Diligently they chafed his benumbed limbs. He demanding for their Captain, they showed him Opechankanough, King of Pamaunkee [also Powhatan's brother and heir], to whom he gave a round Ivory double compass dial. Much they marveled at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they could see so plainly, and yet not touch it, because of the glass that covered them. . . . But when he demonstrated by that Globe-like jewel, the roundness of the earth, and skies, the sphere of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and how the Sun did chase the night round about the world continually; the greatness of the Land and Sea, the diversity of Nations, variety of complexions, and how we were to them Antipodes, and many other such like matters, they all stood as amazed with admiration.

{6} Notwithstanding, within an hour after they tied him to a tree, and as many as could stand about him prepared to shoot him, but the King holding up the Compass in his hand, they all laid down their Bows and Arrows, and . . . he was after their manner kindly feasted, and well used.

Events of December 1607 through January 1608 (in three versions)
[The first description of Smith's meeting with Powhatan was in a long letter that he wrote in 1608. It was published, without his consent, as A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Noate as Hath Hapned in Virginia (1608).

The second description comes from a public letter he wrote to Queen Anne, on the occasion of Pocahontas's visiting England in 1617.

The final, and most detailed, version appeared in A Generall Historie of Virginia, which was published in 1624. By then, Smith's readers would have remembered Pocahontas as the Indian celebrity who had met with the king a few years earlier. Pocahontas and Powhatan had both died, leaving Smith as the only person who could tell what happened at their meeting.]

Meeting with Powhatan (from A True Relation, 1608)
{7} Arriving at [Werowocomoco about January 5, 1608], their Emperor proudly lying upon a Bedstead a foot high, upon ten or twelve Mats, richly hung with Many Chains of great Pearls about his neck, and covered with a great Covering of Rahaughcums. At [his] head sat a woman, at his feet another; on each side sitting upon a Mat upon the ground, were ranged his chief men on each side of the fire, ten in a rank, and behind them as many young women, each a great Chain of white Beads over their shoulders, their heads painted in red: and with such a grave and Majestical countenance, as drove me into admiration to see such state in a naked Savage.

{8} He kindly welcomed me with such good words, and great Platters of sundry Victuals, assuring me his friendship, and my liberty within four days. He much delighted in [Opechankanough] relation of what I had described to him, and oft examined me upon the same.

{9} He asked me the cause of our coming.

{10} I told him being in fight with Spaniards our enemy, being overpowered, near put to retreat, and by extreme weather put to this shore: where landing at [Chesapeake], the people shot us, but Kequoughtan they kindly used us: we by signs demanded fresh water, they described us up the River was all fresh water: at Paspahegh also they kindly used us: our Pinnace being leaky, we were enforced to stay to mend her, till Captain Newport my father came to conduct us away.

{11} He demanded why we went further with our Boat. I told him, in that I would have occasion to talk of the back Sea, that on the other side the maine, where was salt water. . .

{12} After good deliberation, he began to describe me the Countries beyond the Falls, with many of the rest; confirming what not only [Opechankanough] and an Indian which had been prisoner to Powhatan had before told me: but some called it five days, some six, some eight, where the said water dashed amongst many stones and rocks, each storm; which caused oft times the head of the River to be brackish . . . .

{13} I requited his discourse (seeing what pride he had in his great and spacious Dominions, seeing that all he knew were under his Territories) in describing to him, the territories of Europe, which was subject to our great King whose subject I was, the innumerable multitude of his ships, I gave him to understand the noise of Trumpets, and terrible manner of fighting were under captain Newport my father: whom I entitled the [Werowance], which they call the King, of all the waters. At his greatness, he admired and not a little feared. He desired me to forsake Paspahegh, and to live with him upon his River, a Country called Capa Howasicke. He promised to give me Corn, Venison, or what I wanted to feed us: Hatchets and Copper we should make him, and none should disturb us.

{14} This request I promised to perform: and thus, having with all the kindness he could devise, sought to content me, he sent me home, with 4 men: one that usually carried my Gown and Knapsack after me, two other loaded with bread, and one to accompany me. . . .

Meeting with Powhatan (from letter to Queen Anne, 1617)
{15} Some ten years ago being in Virginia, and taken prisoner by the power of Powhatan their chief King, I received from this great Savage exceeding great courtesy, especially from his son Nantaquaus the most manliest, comeliest, boldest spirit, I ever saw in a Savage, and his sister Pocahontas, the King's most dear and well-beloved daughter, being but a child of twelve or thirteen years of age, whose compassionate pitiful heart, of my desperate estate, gave me much cause to respect her: I being the first Christian this proud King and his grim attendants ever saw and thus enthralled in their barbarous power, I cannot say I felt the least occasion of want that was in the power of those my mortal foes to prevent, notwithstanding all their threats. After some six weeks fatting amongst those Savage Courtiers, at the minute of my execution, she hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine, and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown, where I found about eight and thirty miserable poor and sick creatures, to keep possession of all those large territories of Virginia, such was the weakness of this poor Commonwealth, as had the Savages not fed us, we directly had starved.

{16} And this relief, most gracious Queen, was commonly brought us by this Lady Pocahontas, notwithstanding all these passages when inconstant Fortune turned our peace to war, this tender Virgin would still not spare to dare to visit us, and by her our [errors?] have been oft appeased, and our wants still supplied; were it the policy of her father thus to employ her, or the ordinance of God thus to make her his instrument, or her extraordinary affection to our Nation, I know not: but of this I am sure, when her father with the utmost of his policy and power, sought to surprise me, having but eighteen with me, the dark night could not affright her from coming through the irksome woods, and with watered eyes gave me intelligence, with her best advice to escape his fury; which had he known, he had surely slain her. Jamestown, with her wild train, she as freely frequented as her father's habitation; and during the time of two or three years, she next under God, was still the instrument to preserve this Colony from death, famine and utter confusion, which if in those times had once been dissolved, Virginia might have lain as it was at our first arrival to this day. Since then, this business having been turned and varied by many accidents from that I left it at: it is most certain, after a long and troublesome war after my departure, betwixt her father and our Colony, all which time she was not heard of, about two years after she herself was taken prisoner; being so detained near two years longer, the Colony by that means was relieved, peace concluded, and at last rejecting her barbarous condition, was married to an English Gentleman, with whom at this present she is in England; the first Christian ever of that Nation, the first Virginian ever spoke English, or had a child in marriage by an Englishman, a matter surely, if my meaning be truly considered and well understood, worthy a Prince's understanding.

{17}Thus most gracious Lady, I have related to your Majesty, what at your best leisure our approved Histories will account [to] you at large, and done in the time of your Majesty's life, and however this might be presented you from a more worthy pen, it cannot from a more honest heart, as yet I never begged anything of the state, or any, and it is my want of ability and her exceeding desert, your birth, means and authority, her birth, virtue, want and simplicity, doth make me thus bold, humbly to beseech your Majesty to take this knowledge of her, though it be from one so unworthy to be the reporter as myself, her husband's estate not being able to make her fit to attend your Majesty. The most and least I can do is to tell you this, because none so oft hath tried it as myself, and the rather being of so great a spirit, however her stature: if she should not be well received, seeing this Kingdom may rightly have a Kingdom by her means; her present love to us and Christianity, might turn to such scorn and fury, as to divert all this good to the worst of evil. [Whereas] finding so great a Queen should do her some honor more than she can imagine, for being so kind to your servants and subjects, would so ravish her with content, as endear her dearest blood to effect that [which] your Majesty and all the King's honest subjects most earnestly desire. And so I humbly kiss your gracious hands.

Meeting with Powhatan (from A Generall Historie, 1624)
{18}At last they brought him to [Werowocomoco], where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more then two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster; till Powhatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest braveries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered with a great robe, made of Rarowcun [raccoon] skins, and all the tails hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 years, and along on each side the house, two rows of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red; many of their heads bedecked with the white down of Birds; but every one with something: and a great chain of white beads about their necks. At his entrance before the King, all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, instead of a towel to dry them.

{19}Having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, to beat out his brains, Pocahontas the King's dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her Arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death: whereat the Emperor was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves. For the King himself will make his own robes, shoes, Bows, arrows, pots; plant, hunt, or do any thing so well as the rest. . . .

{20}Two days after, Powhatan having disguised himself in the most fearful manner he could, caused Capt. Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there upon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not long after from behind a mat that divided the house, was made the most dolefullest noise he ever heard; then Powhatan more like a devil then a man with some two hundred more as black as himself, came unto him and told him now they were friends, and presently he should go to Jamestown, to send him two great guns, and a grindstone, for which he would give him the Country of Capahowosick, and forever esteem him as his son Nantaquoud.

The following text is all from The Generall Historie.

After Meeting Powhatan, Smith Returns to the Jamestown Fort in January 1608
{21}So to Jamestown with 12 guides Powhatan sent him. That night they quartered in the woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his imprisonment) every hour to be put to one death or other: for all their feasting. But almighty God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern Barbarians with compassion. The next morning betimes they came to the Fort, where Smith having used the Savages with what kindness he could, he showed Rawhunt, Powhatans trusty servant two demi-Culverings [a cannon] & a millstone to carry Powhatan: they found them somewhat too heavy [Here, Smith is making an amusing understatement.] But when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with icicles, the ice and branches came so tumbling down, that the poor Savages ran away half dead with fear. But at last we regained some conference with them, and gave them such toys; and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents, as gave them in general full content. . . .

Pocahontas Helps the Colonists in early 1608
{22}Now ever once in four or five days, Pocahontas with her attendants, brought him so much provision, that saved many of their lives, that else for all this had starved with hunger.

[Smith's] relation of the plenty he had seen, especially at [Werowocomoco], and of the state and bounty of Powhatan, (which till that time was unknown) so revived [the colonists'] dead spirits (especially the love of Pocahontas) as all men's fear was abandoned. Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed any good endeavor: and the good success of the business being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it.

Negotiating with Powhatan in early 1608
{23}[Shortly after Smith returned to Jamestown in January 1608, Captain Christopher Newport arrived from England to lead the colony. He and Smith disagreed over how to manage relations with the Powhatans.] The Savages, as is said, every other day repaired [to Smith], with such provisions that sufficiently did serve them from hand to mouth: part always they brought him as Presents from their King, or Pocahontas; the rest he as their Market Clerk set the price himself, how they should sell: so he had enchanted these poor souls being their prisoner. . . .

{24}But the President and Council so much envied [Smith's] estimation among the Savages, . . .that they wrought it into the Savages' understandings (by their great bounty in giving four times more for their commodities then Smith appointed) that their greatness and authority as much exceeded his, as their bounty and liberality. . . . But in a short time it followed, that could not be had for a pound of Copper, which before was sold us for an ounce: thus ambition and sufferance cut the throat of our trade, but confirmed their opinion of the greatness of Capt. Newport . . . especially by the great presents Newport often sent [Powhatan].

{25}Arriving at Werowocomoco, Newport's [image of] this great Savage bred many doubts and suspicions of treacheries, which Smith to make appear was needless, with twenty men well appointed, undertook to encounter the worst that could happen. . . . But finding all things well, by two or three hundred Savages they were kindly conducted to their town. Where Powhatan strained himself to the utmost of his greatness to entertain them, with great shouts of joy, Orations of protestations; and with the most plenty of victuals he could provide to feast them. Sitting upon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather embroidered (after their rude manner with pearl and white Beads) his attire a fair robe of skins as large as an Irish mantel: at his head and feet a handsome young woman: on each side his house sat twenty of his Concubines, their heads and shoulders painted red, with a great chain of white beads about each of their necks. Before those sat his chiefest men in like order in his arbor-like house, and more then forty platters of fine bread stood as a guard in two files on each side the door. Four or five hundred people made a guard behind them for our passage; and Proclamation was made, none upon pain of death to presume to do us any wrong or discourtesy. With many pretty Discourses to renew their old acquaintance, this great King and our Captain spent the time.

{26}Three or four days more we spent in feasting, dancing, and trading, wherein Powhatan carried himself so proudly, yet discreetly (in his savage manner) as made us all admire his natural gifts, considering his education. As scorning to trade as his subjects did; he bespake Newport in this manner.

{27}Captain Newport it is not agreeable to my greatness, in this peddling manner to trade for trifles; and I esteem you also a great Werowance. Therefore lay me down all your commodities together; what I like I will take, and in recompense give you what I think fitting their value.

{28}Captain Smith being our interpreter . . . knowing best the disposition of Powhatan, told us his intent was but only to cheat us; yet Captain Newport thinking to out brave this Savage in ostentation of greatness, and so to bewitch him with his bounty, as to have what he listed, it so happened, that Powhatan having his desire, valued his corn at such a rate, that I think it better cheap in Spain: for we had not four bushels for that we expected to have twenty hogsheads. This bred some unkindness between our two Captains; Newport seeking to please the unsatiable desire of the Savage, Smith to cause the Savage to please him.

{29}But smothering his [Smith's] distaste to avoid the Savages suspicion, glanced in the eyes of Powhatan many trifles, who fixed his humor upon a few blue beads. A long time he [Powhatan] importunately desired them, but Smith seemed so much the more to affect them, as being composed of a most rare substance of the color of the skies, and not to be worn but by the greatest kings in the world. This made him half mad to be the owner of such strange jewels: so that ere we departed, for a pound or two of blue beads, he brought over . . . 200 or 300 Bushels of corn; yet parted good friends.

Smith Becomes President in September 1608
{30}[In September 1608, Smith became leader of the colonists.] Casting up the Store, and finding sufficient till the next harvest, the fear of starving was abandoned, and the company divided into tens, fifteens, or as the business required; six hours each day was spent in work, the rest in Pastime and merry exercises, but the untowardness of the greatest number caused the [Smith to] advise as followeth.

{31}Countrymen, the long experience of our late miseries, I hope is sufficient to persuade everyone to a present correction of himself, and think not that either my pains, nor the Adventurers' purses, will ever maintain you in idleness and sloth. I speak not this to you all, for diverse of you I know deserve both honor and reward, better than is yet here to be had; but the greater part must be more industrious, or starve. However you have been heretofore tolerated by the authority of the Council, from that I have often commanded you. You see now that power resteth wholly in myself: you must obey this now for a Law, that he that will not work shall not eat (except by sickness he be disabled). For the labors of thirty or forty honest and industrious men shall not be consumed to maintain an hundred and fifty idle loiterers. And though you presume the authority here is but a shadow, and that I dare not touch the lives of any but my own must answer it: the Letters patents shall each week be read to you, whose Contents will tell you the contrary. I would wish you therefore without contempt seek to observe these orders set down, for there are now no more Councilors to protect you, nor curb my endeavors. Therefore he that offendeth, let him assuredly expect his due punishment. . . .

{32}In searching our casked corn, we found it half rotten, and the rest so consumed with so many thousands of Rats that increased so fast, but their original was from the ships, as we knew not how to keep that little we had. This did drive us all to our wits end, for there was nothing in the country but what nature afforded. . . .

{33}To express their loves for 16 days continuance, the Country people brought us (when least) 100 a day, of Squirrels, Turkeys, Deere and other wilde beasts. But this want of come occasioned the end of all our works, it being work sufficient to provide victual. Sixty or eighty with Ensign Laxon was sent down the river to live upon Oysters, and 20 with Lieutenant Percy to try for fishing at Point Comfort. But in six weeks they would not agree once to cast out the net, he being sick and burnt sore with Gunpowder. Master West with as many went up to the falls, but nothing could be found but a few Acorns; of that in store every man had their equal proportion. Till this present, by the hazard and endeavors of some thirty or forty, this whole Colony had ever been fed. We had more Sturgeon, then could be devoured by Dog and Man, of which the industrious by drying and pounding, mingled with Caviar, Sorel and other wholesome herbs would make bread and good meat: others would gather as much Tockwhogh roots, in a day as would make them bread a week, so that of those wild fruits, and what we caught, we lived very well in regard of such a diet. But such was the strange condition of some 150, that had they not been forced nolens, volens, perforce to gather and prepare their victual they would all have starved or have eaten one another.

{34}Of those wild fruits the Savages often brought us, and for that, the President would not fulfill the unreasonable desire, of those distracted Gluttonous Loiterers, to sell not only our kettles, hoes, tools, and Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the very Ordnance and howses, might they have prevailed to have been but Idle. For those Savage fruits, they would have . . . imparted all to the Savages, especially for one basket of Corn they heard of to be at Powhatan's, fifty miles from our Fort. Though he bought near half of it to satisfy their humors, yet to have had the other half, they would have sold their souls, though not sufficient to have kept them a week. Thousands were their exclamations, suggestions and devises, to force him to those base inventions to have made it an occasion to abandon the Country. . . . He argued the case in this manner.

{35}Fellow soldiers, I did little think any so false to report, or so many to be so simple to be persuaded, that I either intend to starve you, or that Powhatan at this present hath corn for himself, much less for you; or that I would not have it, if I knew where it were to be had. Neither did I think any so malicious as now I see a great many; yet it shall not so passionate me, but I will do my best for my most maligner. But dream no longer of this vain hope from Powhatan, [nor] that I will longer forbear to force you, from your Idleness, and punish you if you rail. But if I find any more runners for Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let him assuredly look to arrive at the Gallows. You cannot deny but that by the hazard of my life many a time I have saved yours, when (might your own wills have prevailed) you would have starved; and will do still whether I will or no; But I protest by that God that made me, since necessity hath not power to force you to gather for yourselves those fruits the earth doth yield, you shall not only gather for yourselves, but those that are sick. As yet I never had more from the store then the worst of you: and all my English extraordinary provision that I have, you shall see me divide it amongst the sick. And this Savage trash you so scornfully repine at; being put in your mouths your stomachs can digest, if you would have better you should have brought it; and therefore I will take a course you shall provide what is to be had. The sick shall not starve, but equally share of all our labors; and he that gathereth not every day as much as I do, the next day shall be set beyond the river, and be banished from the Fort as a drone, till he amend his conditions or starve. . . .

{36}This order many murmured was very cruel, but it caused the most part so well bestir themselves, that of 200 (except they were drowned) there died not past seven . . . [who] dyed not for want of such as preserved the rest.

Captain John Smith, Map of New England, 1616, and detail (reproduced from a digital image at Wikimedia Commons).

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